Fluoride Exposure in Early Life as the Possible Root Cause of Disease In Later Life
1Department of Physiology Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans
2Deparment of Comprehensive Dentistry, University of Texas Health Sciences Center
DOI: 10.17796/1053-4625-42.5.1 Vol.42,Issue 5,September 2018 pp.325-330
Published: 01 September 2018
Fluoride, one of the most celebrated ingredients for the prevention of dental caries in the 20th century, has also been controversial for its use in dentifrices and other applications. In the current review, we have concentrated primarily on early-life exposure to fluoride and how it may affect the various organs. The most recent controversial aspects of fluoride are related to toxicity of the developing brain and how it may possibly result in the decrease of intelligence quotient (IQ), autism, and calcification of the pineal gland. In addition, it has been reported to have possible effects on bone and thyroid glands. If nutritional stress is applied during a critical period of growth and development, the organ(s) and/or body will never recover once they pass through the critical period. For example, if animals are force-fed during experiments, they will simply get fat but never reach the normal size. Although early-life fluoride exposure causing fluorosis is well reported in the literature, the dental profession considers it primarily as an esthetic rather than a serious systemic problem. In the current review, we wanted to raise the possibility of future disease as a result of early-life exposure to fluoride. It is not currently known how fluoride will become a cause of future disease. Studies of other nutritional factors have shown that the effects of early nutritional stress are a cause of disease in later life.
Fluoride, Growth and Development, Thyroid Gland, Mental Retardation, Caries, Autistic Disorder
Tetsuo Nakamoto,H Ralph Rawls. Fluoride Exposure in Early Life as the Possible Root Cause of Disease In Later Life. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2018. 42(5);325-330.
1. Fagin D. Second thoughts about fluoride. Sci Am 298: 74-81, 2008.
2. Robinson C. Shore R.C. Brookes S.J. et al. The Chemistry of Enamel Caries. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology 11(4): 481-495, 2000.
3. ten Cate J.M. and van Loveren C. Fluoride mechanisms. Dent Clin North Am 43(4): 713-742, vii 1999.
4. Creeth J.E. Kelly S.A. Martinez-Mier E.A. et al. Dose–response effect of fluoride dentifrice on remineralisation and further demineralisation of erosive lesions: A randomised in situ clinical study. J Dent 43(7): 823–831, 2015.
5. Hicks J. and Garcia-Godoy F. Biological factors in dental caries: role of remineralization and fluoride in the dynamic process of demineralization and remineralization (part 3). J Clin Pediatr Dent 28(3): 203-214, 2004.
6. Chan J.T. and Koh S.H. Fluoride content in caffeinated, decaffeinated and herbal teas. Caries Res 30: 88-92, 1996.
7. Levy S.M. Warren J.J. Davis C.S. et al. Patterns of fluoride intake from birth to 36 months. J Public Health Dent 61: 70-77, 2001.
8. Wiatrowski E. Kramer L. Osis D. et al. Dietary fluoride intake of infants. Pediatrics 55: 517-522,1975.
9. Erdal S. and Buchanan S. A quantitative look at fluorosis, fluoride expo-sure,and intake in children using a health risk assessment approach. Environ Health Perspect 113: 111-117, 2005.
10. Zero D.T. Dentifrices, mouthwashes, and remineralization/caries arrestment strategies. BMC Oral Health 6(Suppl 1):S9 doi:10.1186/1472-6831-6-S1-S9, 2006.
11. Naccache H. Simard P.L. Trahan L. et al. Factors affecting the ingestion of fluoride dentifrice by children. J Public Health Dent 52: 222-226, 1992.
12. Schulman J.D. and Wells L.M. Acute fluoride toxicity from ingesting home-use dental products in children, birth to 6 years of age. Public Health Dent 57: 150-158,1997.
13. Bronstein A.C. Spyker D.A. Cantilena L.R. et al. 2011 annual report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers’ National Poison Data System (NPDS): 29th Annual Report. Clin Toxicol 50: 911-1164, 2012.
14. Jain R.B. Concentrations of fluoride in water and plasma for US children and adolescents: Data from NHANES 2013-2014. Environ Toxicol Phar-macol 50: 20-31, 2017 March. Doi: 10. 1016/j.etap.2017. 01.006. Epub 2017, Jan 17)
15. Singer L. and Ophaug R. Total fluoride intake of infants. Pediatrics 63: 460- 466, 1979.
16. Guha-Chowdhury N. Drummond B.K. and Smillie A.C. Total fluoride intake in children aged 3 to 4 years—- a longitudinal study. J Dent Res75: 1451-1457,1996.
17. Levy S.M. Review of fluoride exposures and ingestion. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 22: 173-180, 1994.
18. Celeste R.K. and Luz P.B. Independent and additive effects of different sources of fluoride and dental fluorosis. Pediatric Dent 38: 233-238, 2016.
19. Bhagavatula P. Levy S.M. Broffitt B. et al. Timing of fluoride intake and dental fluorosis on late-erupting permanent teeth. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 44: 32-45, 2016.
20. Simard P.L. Naccache H. Lachapelle D. et al. Ingestion of fluoride from dentifrices by children aged 12 to 24 months. Clin Pediatr 30: 614-617,1991.
21. Osuji O.O. Leacke J.L. Chipman M.L. et al. Risk factors for dental fluorosis in a fluoridated community. J Dent Res 67: 1488-1492,1988.
22. Grimaldo M. Borja-Aburto V.H. Ramírez A.L. et al. Endemic fluorosis in San Luis Potosi, Mexico I. Identification of risk factors associated with human exposure to fluoride. Environ Res 68:25-30, 1995.
23. Morgan L. Allres D. Tavares M. et al. Investigation of the possible associ-ations between fluorosis, fluoride exposure, and childhood behavior prob-lems. Pediatr Dent 20: 244-252, 1998.
24. Lalumandier J.A. and Rozier R.G. The prevalence and risk factors of fluo-rosis among patients in a pediatric dental practice. Pediatr Dent 17: 19-25, 1995.
25. Chan J.T. Qiu C.C. Whitford G. M. et al. The distribution of fluoride of prenatal origin in the rat—-a pilot study. Archs oral Biol 34: 885-888, 1989.
26. Chan J.T. Qui C.C. Whitford G.M. et al. Influence of coffee on fluoride metabolism in rats. Proc Soc Exp Bio Med 194: 43-47, 1990.
27. Chan J.T. Fry B.W. and Weatherred J.G. Effect of dietary caffeine on F levels in humans. J Dent Res 67:188, 1988.
han J.T. Yip T.T. and , Jeske A.H. The role of caffeinated beverages in dental fluorosis. Med Hypotheses 33: 21-22, 1990
29. Perez-Perez N. Torres-Mendoza N. Borges-Yanez A. et al. Dental fluorosis: concentration of fluoride in drinking water and consumption of bottled beverages in school children. J Clin Pediatr Dent 38: 338-344, 2014.
30. Enesco M. and Leblond C.P. Increase in cell number as a factor in the growth of the organs and tissues of the young male rat. J Embryol exp Morphol 10: 530-562, 1962.
31. Goss R. J. Hypertrophy versus Hyperplasia. How much organs can grow depends on whether their functional units increase in size or in number. Science 53: 1615-1620, 1966.
32. Widdowson E.M. and, McCance R. A. review: new thoughts on growth. Pediat Res 1975; 9: 154-156,1975.
33. Winick M. and Noble A. Quantitative changes in DNA, RNA, and protein during prenatal and postnatal growth in the rat. Develop Biol 12: 451- 466,1965.
34. Winick M.and Noble A. Cellular response in rats during malnutrition at various ages. J Nutr 89: 300-306, 1966.
35. Widdowson E.M. Nutrition and the Nervous System. The Historical Back-ground. Eds. Somogyi J.C.and Figanza F. Bibl Nutr Diet Karger Basel No 17: 5-15, 1972.
36. Barker D.J.P. The fetal origins of adult disease. Proceed Royal Societ Lond B Biol Sci 262: 37-43, 1995.
37. Grandjean P. and Landrigan P.J. Developmental neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals. Lancet 368: 2167-2178, 2006.
38. Boyle C.A. Decoufle P. and Yeargin-Allsopp M. Prevalence and health impact of developmental disabilities in US children. Pediatrics;93: 399- 403, 1994.
39. Rice D. and Barone S Jr. Critical periods of vulnerability for the developing nervous system: evidence from humans and animal models. Environ Health Perspect 108 (suppl 3): 511-533, 2000.
40. Grandjean P. and Landrigan P.J. Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity. Lancet Neurol 13: 330-338, 2014.
41. Xiang Q. Liang Y. Chen L. et al. Effect of fluoride in drinking water on children’s intelligence. Fluoride 36: 84-94, 2003.
42. Khan S.A. Singh R.K. Navit S. et al. Relationship Between Dental Fluorosis and Intelligence Quotient of School Going Children In and Around Lucknow District: A Cross-Sectional Study. J Clin Diagn Res Nov;9(11):ZC10-15. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2015/15518.6726, 2015.
43. Sebastian S.T. and Sunitha S. A cross-sectional study to assess the intelli-gence quotient (IQ) of school going children aged 10-12 years in villages of Mysore district, India with different fluoride levels. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 33: 307-311, 2015.
44. Seraj B. Shahrabi M. Shadfar M. et al. Effect of high water fluoride concen-tration on the intellectual development of children in makoo/iran. J Dent (Tehran) 9: 221-229, 2012.
45. Lung S.C. Hsiao P.K. and Chiang K.M. Fluoride concentrations in three types of commercially packed tea drinks in Taiwan. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 13: 66-73, 2003.
46. Choi A.L. Sun G. Zhang Y. et al. Developmental fluoride neurotoxicity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect 120: 1362-1368, 2012.
47. Mullenix P.J. Denbesten P.K. Schunior A. et al. Neurotoxicity of sodium fluoride in rats. Neurotoxicol Teratol 17: 169-177, 1995.
48. Guan Z. Z. Wang Y.N. Xiao K.Q. et al. Influence of chronic fluorosis on membraine lipids in rat brain. Neurotoxicol Teratol 20:537-542, 1998.
49. Broadbent J.M. Thomson W.M. Ramrakha S. et al. Community water fluo-ridation and intelligence: Prospective study in New Zealand. Am J Public Health e1-e5, 2014.
50. Blaylock R.L. Excitotoxicity: a possible central mechanism in fluoride neurotoxicity. Fluoride 37: 301-314, 2004.
51. ShivarajashankaraY.M. Shivashankara A.R. Gopalakrishna Bhat P. et al. Brain lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems of young rats in chronic fluoride intoxication. Fluoride 35: 197-203, 2002.
52. Blaylock R.L. A possible central mechanism in autism spectrum disorders, Part 3: the role of excitotocin foods additives and the synergistic effects of other environmental toxins. Altern Ther Health Med 15: 56-60, 2009.
53. Tapp E. and Huxley M. The weight and degree of calcification of the pineal gland. JPath 105: 31-39, 1971.
Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,500 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.
PubMed (MEDLINE) PubMed comprises more than 35 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Biological Abstracts Easily discover critical journal coverage of the life sciences with Biological Abstracts, produced by the Web of Science Group, with topics ranging from botany to microbiology to pharmacology. Including BIOSIS indexing and MeSH terms, specialized indexing in Biological Abstracts helps you to discover more accurate, context-sensitive results.
Google Scholar Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines.
JournalSeek Genamics JournalSeek is the largest completely categorized database of freely available journal information available on the internet. The database presently contains 39226 titles. Journal information includes the description (aims and scope), journal abbreviation, journal homepage link, subject category and ISSN.
Current Contents - Clinical Medicine Current Contents - Clinical Medicine provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in clinical medicine.
BIOSIS Previews BIOSIS Previews is an English-language, bibliographic database service, with abstracts and citation indexing. It is part of Clarivate Analytics Web of Science suite. BIOSIS Previews indexes data from 1926 to the present.
Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.
Scopus: CiteScore 2.0 (2022) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.