Article Data

  • Views 789
  • Dowloads 186

Original Research

Open Access

Association of Salivary Zinc Levels to Dental Caries and Body Mass Index. A Comparative Study

  • Akhilesh Sharma1,*,
  • Priya Subramaniam1

1Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry,The Oxford Dental College and Hospital, Bangalore 68, Karnataka, India

DOI: 10.17796/1053-4625-45.4.8 Vol.45,Issue 4,October 2021 pp.265-268

Published: 01 October 2021

*Corresponding Author(s): Akhilesh Sharma E-mail: akhilhere@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background and objectives: Role of salivary zinc to dental caries and body weight has not been studied extensively in children. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between salivary zinc and caries in overweight/obese Indian children. Study design: One hundred and sixty children aged 8–12 years of both genders were divided into two groups of eighty each based on their body mass index into normal weight and overweight/obese. Each child was assessed for their caries experience in primary and permanent dentition. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected from each child to estimate zinc levels by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Data was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The mean caries score among the overweight/obese children was 2.2±3.9 and 0.7±1.5 in the primary and permanent dentition respectively compared to the 2.0±2.6 and 0.2±0.5 respectively among normal weight children. Mean salivary zinc levels in overweight/obese children were 0.36±0.27 ppm compared to normal weight children of 0.81±0.46 ppm. Conclusion: Overweight/obese children demonstrated significantly lower salivary zinc levels and higher caries experience in permanent dentition. Salivary zinc levels showed a positive but weak association to caries in permanent dentition in both groups. Salivary zinc levels showed a negative non-significant correlation to caries in primary dentition among the children with higher BMI.

Keywords

Salivary zinc; BMI; Caries

Cite and Share

Akhilesh Sharma,Priya Subramaniam. Association of Salivary Zinc Levels to Dental Caries and Body Mass Index. A Comparative Study. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2021. 45(4);265-268.

References

1. Ranjani H, Mehreen TS, Pradeepa R, Anjana RM, Garg R, Anand K et al. Epidemiology of childhood overweight and obesity in India. A systematic review. Indian J Med Res 2016, 143(2);160-74

2. Hooley M, Skouteris H, Boganin C, Satur J and Kilpatrick N. Body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents: a systematic review of literature published 2004 to 2011. Systematic Reviews 2012, 1:57

3. Munoz KA, krebs-smith SM, Ballard RB, Cleveland LE. Food intake of US children and adolescents compared with recommendations. Pediatrics 1997, 100; 323-9.

4. Subhadharshini S. Serum zinc levels in dental caries patients. Int.J.Pharm. Sci.Rev.Res. 2015,35(1);19-20

5. Azab SFA, Saleh SH, Elsaeed WF, Elshafie MA, Sherief LM, Esh AMH. Trace elements in obese Egyptian children: a case–control study. Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:20

6. Alsaadi AA, Diab BS, YakubMajid A. Caries experience and salivary constituents among overweight children aged 6-11 years in Baghdad, Iraq. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(2):75-80

7. World health organization. Oral health surveys: basic methods , 4th ed. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO 1997

8. Centers for disease control and prevention. Growth charts body mass index for age percentiles, boys and girls. Available at htpp://www.cdc.gov/bmi/bmimeans.htm.accessed

9. Dean JA, Avery DR, McDonald RE. (2011) McDonald and Avery’s dentistry for the child and adolescent. 9th ed. St Louis: Mosby. p.184

10. Haswell SJ. Atomic absorption spectrometry theory, design and application. Elservier , Tokyo 1991

11. Prasad AS. Clinical, immunological, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant roles of zinc. Exp. Gerontol. 2008, 43, 370–377.

12. Singh RB, Beegom R, Rastogi SS, Gaoli Z, Shoumin Z. Association of low plasma concentrations of antioxidant vitamins, magnesium and zinc with high body fat per cent measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis in Indian men. Magnes. Res. 1998, 11, 3–10.

13. Selva DM, Lecube A, Hernandez C, Baena JA, Fort JM, Simó R. Lower zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein production by adipose tissue and liver in obese patients unrelated to insulin resistance. J. Clin. Endocrinol.Metab. 2009, 94, 4499–4507.

14. Smidt K, Pedersen SB, Brock B, Ole Schmitz O, Sanne Fisker S, Jørgen Bendix J et al. Zinc-transporter genes in human visceral and subcutaneous adipocytes: Lean versus obese. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 2007, 264, 68–73.

15. Marreiro DN, Fisberg M, Cozzolino SM. Zinc nutritional status in obese children and adolescents. Boil Trace Elem Res 2002, 86(2);107-22

16. Golden MH, Golden BE. Effect of zinc supplementation on dietary intake, rate of weight gain and energy cost of tissue deposition in children recovery from severe malnutrition. J Clin Nutr 1981 ;34(5):900-8

17. Kennedy ML, Faille ML, Smith JC. Influence of genetic obesity on tissue concentrations of zinc, copper, manganese and iron. J Nutr 1986; 116(8):1432-41

18. Jassim AMN, Mohammed MT, Farhan SA, Ahmed OM. Investigation of zinc concentrations in serum and saliva of obese. Int. J. Chem. Sci 2016.: 14(4), 1857-1864

19. Fan Y, Zhang C, and Bu J. Relationship between selected serum metallic elements and obesity in children and adolescent in the U.S. Nutrients 2017, 9, 104

20. Hilhers KK, Kinase DE, Scheetz JP. Association between childhood obesity and smooth surface caries in posterior teeth. A preliminary study. Pediatr Dent 2006;28:23-28

21. Wilherhausen B, Haas G, Krummenauer F, Hohenfellner K. Relationship between high weight and caries frequency in German elementary school children. Eur J Med Res 2004;9:400-4

22. Mohammadi TM, Zainab H, Bakhteyar M. The association of body mass index with dental caries in an Iranian sample of children. JOHOE20121(1)

23. Chen D, Zhi Q, Zhou Y, Tao Y, Wu L, Lin H. Association between dental caries and BMI in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Caries Res 2018;52:230-45

24. Hussein AS, Salih BA, Al-Nasir MG. The Association of Salivary Calcium, Inorganic Phosphorus, Zinc and Copper in Children and Early Childhood Caries: A case-control study. JODR 2017; 4:110-19

25. Duggal MS, Chawla HS, Curzon ME. A study of the relationship between trace elements in saliva and dental caries in children. Arch Oral Biol 1991; 36: 881-4.


Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,500 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

PubMed (MEDLINE) PubMed comprises more than 35 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

Biological Abstracts Easily discover critical journal coverage of the life sciences with Biological Abstracts, produced by the Web of Science Group, with topics ranging from botany to microbiology to pharmacology. Including BIOSIS indexing and MeSH terms, specialized indexing in Biological Abstracts helps you to discover more accurate, context-sensitive results.

Google Scholar Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines.

JournalSeek Genamics JournalSeek is the largest completely categorized database of freely available journal information available on the internet. The database presently contains 39226 titles. Journal information includes the description (aims and scope), journal abbreviation, journal homepage link, subject category and ISSN.

Current Contents - Clinical Medicine Current Contents - Clinical Medicine provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in clinical medicine.

BIOSIS Previews BIOSIS Previews is an English-language, bibliographic database service, with abstracts and citation indexing. It is part of Clarivate Analytics Web of Science suite. BIOSIS Previews indexes data from 1926 to the present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Scopus: CiteScore 2.0 (2022) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Submission Turnaround Time

Conferences

Top