Article Data

  • Views 782
  • Dowloads 156

Original Research

Open Access

Sensitivity and specificity of air-drying and magnification in detection of initial caries on occlusal surfaces

  • Deepti Goel1,*,
  • Meera Sandhu1
  • Pulkit Jhingan1
  • Vinod Sachdev1

1Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, ITS – CDSR, Muradnagar, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

DOI: 10.17796/1053-4628-40.3.215 Vol.40,Issue 3,May 2016 pp.215-221

Published: 01 May 2016

*Corresponding Author(s): Deepti Goel E-mail:


Objective-The aim of this study was to assess the effect of magnification and air-drying on detection of carious lesion. Study Design-44 human extracted premolars were selected with sound occlusal surfaces without frank cavitation. The Diagnostic techniques used were Unaided visual examination, Magnifying Loupes (4.2×) and Stereomicroscope (10×, before and after air-drying) and then the teeth were sectioned bucco-lingually and both the surfaces were examined under Stereomicroscope (50×) to assess the presence or absence of carious lesion in the pit and fissures. The scores were compared to obtain Cohen's kappa coefficient (Reproducibility) and subjected to the Friedman Test and Paired t test. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value used to assess accuracy. Results-On Statistical analysis, visual examination before and after air drying had highest specificity but lowest sensitivity compared to different diagnostic techniques. Magnifying loupes after air-drying had highest sensitivity and lowest specificity compared to other diagnostic techniques. Conclusion-Air drying combined with magnifying aids are cost-effective, reliable method for detection of early carious lesion. If used in pediatric clinical practice, any undesirable pain and discomfort to the patient due to invasive procedures and helps in employing preventive measures.


Stereomicroscope, Magnifying Loupes, Unaided visual examination, Cohen’s Kappa Test, Paired t-test.

Cite and Share

Deepti Goel,Meera Sandhu,Pulkit Jhingan,Vinod Sachdev. Sensitivity and specificity of air-drying and magnification in detection of initial caries on occlusal surfaces. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2016. 40(3);215-221.


1. Gonzalez MC, Ruiz JA, Fajardo MC, Gomez AD, Moreno CS, Ochoa MJ et al. Comparison of the def index with Nyvad’s Caries Diagnostic Criteria in 3- and 4- year-old Colombian Children. Pediatr Dent 25: 132- 136, 2003.

2. Maheswari SU, Raja J, Kumar A, and Seelan RG. Caries management by risk assessment: A review on current strategies for caries prevention and management. J Pharm Bioallied Sci 7(2): S320–S324, 2015.

3. Welbury R, Duggal M, Hosey MT. Paediatric Dentistry. Oxford Univer-sity Press Inc, New York; 109-16, 2006.

4. Pourshemi SJ, Jafari A, Motahhari P, Panjnoosh M, Kharrazi Fard MJ, Sanati I et al. An in-vitro comparison of visual inspection, bite-wing radiography, and laser fluorescence methods for the diagnosis of occlusal caries. J Indian Soc Pedod Prevent Dent 27(2): 90-93, 2009.

5. Axelsson P, Sweden K. Preventive Materials, Methods and Programs. Quintessence Publishing Co, Slovakia; 369-86, 2004.

6. El-Housseiny AA, Jamjoum H. Evaluation of visual, explorer, and a laser device for detection of early occlusal caries. J Clin Pediatr Dent 26(1): 41- 8, 2001.

7. Koch G, Poulsen S. Pediatric Dentistry – A Clinical Approach. Wiley-Blackwell, United Kingdom; 91-92, 2009.

8. Braga MM, Mendes FM, Ekstrand KR. Detection activity assessment and Diagnosis of dental caries lesions. Dent Clin N Am 54: 479-493, 2010.

9. Axelsson P, Sweden K. Diagnosis and Risk Prediction of Dental Caries. Quintessence Publishing Co Inc, Slovakia; 179-248, 2000.

10. Forgie AH, Pine CM, Pitts NB. The use of magnification in preventive approach to caries detection. Quintessence Int 33(1): 13-16, 2002.

11. Chockalingam PR. Illustrated Paediatric Dentistry. Wolters Kluwer Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi; 187-89, 2014.

12. Angnes G, Angnes V, Grande RHM, Battistella M, Loguercio AD, Reis A. Occlusal caries diagnosis in permanent teeth” an in vitro study. Braz Oral Res 19(4): 243-8, 2005.

13. Fejerskov O, Kidd E. Dental Caries:The Disease and its clinical manage-ment. Blackwell Munksgaard Ltd, Oxford;491-99, 2008.

14. Peker I, Alkurt MT, Bala O, Altunkaynak. The efficiency of operating microscope compared with unaided visual examination, conventional and digital intraoral radiography for proximal caries detection. Int J Dent 2009: 1-6, 2009.

15. Shi XQ, Welander U, Angmar-Mansson B. Occlusal caries detection with KaVo Dd and radiography: an in vitro comparison. Caries Res 34: 151-8, 2000.

16. Pinelli C, Loffredo LCM, Serra MC. Effect of drying on the reproducibility of DIAGNOdent to detect caries-like lesions. Braz Dent J 21(5): 405-410, 2010.

17. Cortes DF, Ekstrand KR, Elias-Boneta AR, Ellwood RP. An in vitro comparison of the ability of fibre-optic transillumination, visual inspection and radiographs to detect occlusal caries and evaluate lesion depth. Caries Res 34(6): 443-7, 2000.

18. Reis A, Zacg VL Jr, de Lima AC, de Limaa Navarro MF, Grande RH. Occlusal caries detection: a comparison of DIAGNOdent and two conventional diagnostic methods. J Clin Dent 15(3): 76-82, 2004.

19. Costa AM, Bezzerra AC, Fuks AB. Assessment of the accuracy of visual examination, bite-wing radiographs and DIAGNOdent on the diagnosis of occlusal caries. Eur Arch Pardiatr Dent 8(2): 118-22, 2007.

20. Hintz H, Wenzel A, Larsen MJ. Stereomicroscopy, film radiography, microradiography and naked-eye inspection of tooth sections as validation for occlusal caries diagnosis. Caries Res 29(5):359-63, 1995.

21. Erten H, Uctasli MB, Akarslan ZZ, Uzun O, Baspinar E. The assessment of unaided visual examination, intraoral camera and operating microscope for the detection of occlusal caries lesions. Oper Dent 30(2): 190-4, 2005.

22. da Silva Neto JM, dos Santos RL, Sampaio MCC, Sampaio FC, Passos IA. Radiographic Diagnosis of Incipient Proximal Caries: An Ex-Vivo Study. Braz Dent J 19(2): 97-102, 2008.

23. Reis A, Mendes FM, Angnes V, Angnes G, Grande RHM, Loguercio AD. Performance of methods of occlusal caies detection in permanent teeth under clinical and laboratory conditions. J Dent 34: 89-96, 2006.

24. Haak R, Wicht MJ, hellmich M, Gossmann A, Noack MJ. The validity of proximal caries detection using magnifying visual aids. Caries Res 36(4):249-55, 2002.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,500 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Biological Abstracts Easily discover critical journal coverage of the life sciences with Biological Abstracts, produced by the Web of Science Group, with topics ranging from botany to microbiology to pharmacology. Including BIOSIS indexing and MeSH terms, specialized indexing in Biological Abstracts helps you to discover more accurate, context-sensitive results.

Google Scholar Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines.

JournalSeek Genamics JournalSeek is the largest completely categorized database of freely available journal information available on the internet. The database presently contains 39226 titles. Journal information includes the description (aims and scope), journal abbreviation, journal homepage link, subject category and ISSN.

Current Contents - Clinical Medicine Current Contents - Clinical Medicine provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in clinical medicine.

BIOSIS Previews BIOSIS Previews is an English-language, bibliographic database service, with abstracts and citation indexing. It is part of Clarivate Analytics Web of Science suite. BIOSIS Previews indexes data from 1926 to the present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Scopus: CiteScore 2.0 (2022) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Submission Turnaround Time