Article Data

  • Views 604
  • Dowloads 165

Original Research

Open Access

Identification of Cultivable Microorganisms from Primary Teeth with Necrotic Pulps

  • Gildardo Ledezma-Rasillo1
  • Hector Flores-Reyes2
  • Ana Ma. Gonzalez-Amaro2
  • Arturo Garrocho-Rangel1
  • Ma. del Socorro Ruiz-Rodriguez1
  • Amaury J Pozos-Guillen3

1Pediatric Dentistry Posgraduate Program, Facultad de Estomatología, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, México

2Endodontics Postgraduate Program, Facultad de Estomatología, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, México

3Pediatric Dentistry Postgraduate Program and Endodontics Postgraduate Program, Facultad de Estomatología, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, México

DOI: 10.17796/jcpd.34.4.20124lu111544377 Vol.34,Issue 4,July 2010 pp.329-334

Published: 01 July 2010

*Corresponding Author(s): Amaury J Pozos-Guillen E-mail:


The objective of this study was to identify cultivable microorganisms from primary teeth with necrotic pulps. This experimental study included 21 patients of both sexes between 4 and 7 years of age with necrotic pulps in primary teeth. Twenty-one maxillary and mandibular molars containing at least 1 necrotic canal, an abscess or sinus tract, one or more radiolucent areas in the furcation or periapical region, teeth having at least two thirds of root length, and carious lesions directly exposed to the oral environment were included. After antisepsis of the oral cavity, anesthesia of the affected tooth, and isolation and disinfection of the operative field, 3 sterile absorbent paper points were sequentially placed for 30 seconds for the collection of samples. The samples were immediately processed in an anaerobic chamber, and all isolated microorganisms were identified. Anaerobic species (anaerobic facultative and moderate anaerobes) were isolated in all root canals; 68.4% of root canal samples studied showed a polymicrobial nature. Most of the isolate consisted of Bifidobacterium Spp2 and Streptococcus intermedius. Other less frequently encountered species were Actinomyces israelii, Bifidobacterium spp 1, Clostridium spp, and Candida albicans. Results indicate the existence of combinations of bacterial species in root canal infections of the primary dentition with necrotic pulps, anaerobic bacteria predominating.


anaerobic microorganisms, necrotic pulp, primary teeth

Cite and Share

Gildardo Ledezma-Rasillo,Hector Flores-Reyes,Ana Ma. Gonzalez-Amaro,Arturo Garrocho-Rangel,Ma. del Socorro Ruiz-Rodriguez,Amaury J Pozos-Guillen. Identification of Cultivable Microorganisms from Primary Teeth with Necrotic Pulps. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2010. 34(4);329-334.


1. Aas JA, Paster BJ, Stokes LN. Defining the normal bacterial flora of the oral cavity. J Clin Microbiol, 43: 5721–32, 2005.

2. Sundqvist G. Ecology of the root canal flora. J Endod,18: 427–30, 1992.

3. Kakehashi S, Stanley HR, Fitzgerald RJ. The effects of surgical expo-sures of dental pulps in germ-free and conventional laboratory rats. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 20: 340–9, 1965.

4. Siquieira JF Jr. Taxonomic changes of bacteria associated with endodontic infections. J Endod, 29: 619–23, 2003.

5. da Silva LA, Nelson-Filho P, Faria G, de Souza-Gugelmin MC, Ito IY. Bacterial profile in primary teeth with necrotic pulp and periapical lesions. Braz Dent J, 17: 144–8, 2006.

6. Reddy S, Ramakrishna Y. Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of vari-ous root canal filling material used in primary teeth: microbiological study. J Clin Pediatr Dent, 31: 1995–9, 2007.

7. Peters LB, Wesselink PR, van Winkelhoff AJ. Combinations of bacter-ial species in endodontic infections. Int Endod J, 35: 698–702, 2002.

8. Siqueira JF Jr, Jung IY, Rôças IN, Lee CY. Differences in prevalence of selected bacterial species in primary endodontic infections from two distinct geographic locations. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 99: 641–7, 2005.

9. Baumgartner JC, Siqueira JF Jr, Xia T, Róças IN. Geographical differ-ences in bacteria detected in endodontic infections using polymerase chain reaction. J Endod, 30: 141–4, 2004.

10. Baumgartner CJ. Microbiological and molecular analysis of endodon-tic infections. Endod Top, 7: 35–51, 2004.

11. Carlsson J, Sundqvist G. Evaluation of methods of transport and culti-vation of bacterial specimens from infected dental root canals. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 49: 451–4, 1980.

12. Ng YL, Spratt D, Sriskantharajah S, Gulabivala K. Evaluation of proto-cols for field decontamination before bacterial sampling of root canals for contemporary microbiology techniques. J Endod, 29: 317–20, 2003.

13. Manzur A, González AM, Pozos A, Silva-Herzog D, Friedman S. Bac-terial quantification in teeth with apical periodontitis related to instru-mentation and different intracanal medications: a randomized clinical trial. J Endod, 33: 114–8, 2007.

14. Siqueira JF Jr, Rôças IN. Catonella morbid and Granulicatella adian-cens: new species in endodontic infections. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 102: 259–64, 2006.

15. Cox ST Jr, Hembree JH Jr, McKnight JP. The bactericidal potential of various endodontic materials for primary teeth. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 45: 947–54, 1978.

16. Khemaleelakul S, Baumgartner JC, Pruksakorn S. Identification of bacteria in acute endodontic infections and their antimicrobial suscep-tibility. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 94: 746–55, 2002.

17. Picard C, Fioramonti J, Francois A, Robinson T, Neant F, Matuchansky C. Review article: bifidobacteria as probiotic agents—physiological effects and clinical benefits. Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 22: 495–512, 2005.

18. Hojo K, Nagaoka S, Murata S, Taketomo N, Ohshima T, Maeda N. Reduction of vitamin K concentration by salivary Bifidobacterium strains and their possible nutritional competition with Porphyromonas gingivalis. J Appl Microbiol, 103: 1969–74, 2007.

19. Hojo K, Mizoguchi C, Taketomo N, Ohshima T, Gomi K, Arai T, Maeda N. Distribution of salivary Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species in periodontal health and disease. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 71: 152–7, 2007.

20. Orrhage K, Nord CE. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in human health. Drugs Exp Clin Res, 26: 95–111, 2000.

21. Whiley RA, Beighton D, Winstanley TG, Fraser HY, Hardie JM. Strep-tococcus intermedius, Streptococcus constellatus, and Streptococcus anginosus (the Streptococcus milleri group): association with different body sites and clinical infections. J Clin Microbiol, 30: 243–4, 1992.

22. Chavez de Paz L. Gram-positive organisms in endodontic infections. Endodontic Topics, 9: 79–96, 2004.

23. Adib V, Spratt D, Ng YL, Gulabivala K. Cultivable microbial flora asso-ciated with persistent periapical disease and coronal leakage after root canal treatment: a preliminary study. Int Endod J, 37: 542–51, 2004.

24. Cannon RD, Chaffin WL. Oral colonization by Candida albicans. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med, 10: 359–83, 1999.

25. Schenkein HA, Burmeister JA, Koertge TE, Brooks CN, Best AM, Moore LV, Moore WE. The influence of race and gender on periodon-tal microflora. J Periodontol, 64: 292–6, 1993.

26. Sirinian G, Shimizu T, Sugar C, Slots J, Chen C. Periodontopathic bac-teria in young healthy subjects of different ethnic backgrounds in Los Angeles. J Periodontol, 73: 283–8, 2002.

27. Sundqvist G. Ecology of the root canal flora. J Endod, 18: 427–30, 1992.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,500 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

PubMed (MEDLINE) PubMed comprises more than 35 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

Biological Abstracts Easily discover critical journal coverage of the life sciences with Biological Abstracts, produced by the Web of Science Group, with topics ranging from botany to microbiology to pharmacology. Including BIOSIS indexing and MeSH terms, specialized indexing in Biological Abstracts helps you to discover more accurate, context-sensitive results.

Google Scholar Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines.

JournalSeek Genamics JournalSeek is the largest completely categorized database of freely available journal information available on the internet. The database presently contains 39226 titles. Journal information includes the description (aims and scope), journal abbreviation, journal homepage link, subject category and ISSN.

Current Contents - Clinical Medicine Current Contents - Clinical Medicine provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in clinical medicine.

BIOSIS Previews BIOSIS Previews is an English-language, bibliographic database service, with abstracts and citation indexing. It is part of Clarivate Analytics Web of Science suite. BIOSIS Previews indexes data from 1926 to the present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Scopus: CiteScore 2.0 (2022) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Submission Turnaround Time