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Original Research

Open Access

Evaluation of Changes in Muscle Thickness, Bite Force and Facial Asymmetry during Early Treatment of Functional Posterior Crossbite

  • Paula Midori Castelo1,*,
  • Maria Beatriz Duarte Gavião2
  • Luciano José Pereira3
  • Leonardo Rigoldi Bonjardim4

1Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, Brazil

2Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba, Brazil

3Department of Physiology, Federal University of Lavras, Lavras, Brazil

4Department of Physiology, Dental School of the Federal University of Sergipe, Sergipe, Brazil

DOI: 10.17796/jcpd.34.4.656rh557093373k4 Vol.34,Issue 4,July 2010 pp.369-374

Published: 01 July 2010

*Corresponding Author(s): Paula Midori Castelo E-mail:


Objective: To determine morphological and functional effects on masticatory system of early treatment of functional posterior crossbite in young children. Study design: 23 children were divided into two groups:deciduous (DecG, n=11) and early mixed dentition (MixG, n=12), which received slow maxillary expansion. Maximal bite force, ultrasonographic masticatory muscle thickness and facial asymmetry were evaluated in three stages: before the start of treatment (s1), after three months of retention (s2), and after three months of observation (s3). The results were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U-test, correlation test, repeated measures ANOVA and backward stepwise multiple regression. Results. Bite force and temporalis thickness increased from s1 to s2 and s3 in both groups (p<0.05). Body mass index (BMI) increased significantly from s1 to s3 only in the MixG, but the masseter thickness did not differ among the stages. The correlation between the angle of the eye and the angle of the mouth in relation to the mid-sagital plane increased from s1 to s3. Masticatory muscle thickness contributed significantly to bite force magnitude in all stages, whereas age and BMI showed no significant contribution to its variation. Conclusion: Bite force and temporalis muscle thickness increased significantly in children after early treatment of functional crossbite.


Ultrasonography; Bite Force; Face; Malocclusion

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Paula Midori Castelo,Maria Beatriz Duarte Gavião,Luciano José Pereira,Leonardo Rigoldi Bonjardim. Evaluation of Changes in Muscle Thickness, Bite Force and Facial Asymmetry during Early Treatment of Functional Posterior Crossbite. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2010. 34(4);369-374.


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