Article Data

  • Views 690
  • Dowloads 138

Original Research

Open Access

Timing of Permanent Teeth Eruption in Turkish Children

  • Bayrak S1,*,
  • Sen Tunc E2
  • Tuloglu N2
  • Acikgoz A3

1Department of Pediatric Dentistry. From the Faculty of Dentistry, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey

2,Department of Pediatric Dentistry

3,Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology

DOI: 10.17796/jcpd.37.2.8v072017534j0191 Vol.37,Issue 2,March 2013 pp.207-212

Published: 01 March 2013

*Corresponding Author(s): Bayrak S E-mail:


Objective: To identify the mean time of permanent teeth eruption in children aged 5-15 years in Samsun, Turkey. Study Design: A total of 1,491 children aged 5-15 years (Female: 773; Male: 718) were included in this study. Teeth were recorded as either “not erupted” or “erupted,” which was defined as having at least one cusp visible in the oral cavity. Differences between eruption times for males and females and for maxillary and mandibular teeth were analysed using independent t-tests. Results: Eruption tended to be earlier in females than in males, but this difference was significant only for maxillary and mandibular canines and mandibular first premolars (p<0.05). For both females and males, the first teeth to erupt were the central incisors and first molars, and the last to erupt were the second premolars, molars and canines. Mandibular incisors and canines erupted significantly earlier than their maxillary counterparts in both females and males (p<0.05). Conclusion: In comparison with other studies, eruption times of permanent first molars, central and lateral incisors were delayed by several months, whereas eruption times of other teeth were accelerated by several months. The findings regarding eruption times should be considered when planning dental treatment.


Eruption sequence; Permanent teeth; Tooth eruption

Cite and Share

Bayrak S,Sen Tunc E,Tuloglu N,Acikgoz A. Timing of Permanent Teeth Eruption in Turkish Children. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2013. 37(2);207-212.


1. Suri L., Gagari E., Vastardis H. Delayed tooth eruption: pathogenesis, diag-nosis, and treatment. A literature review. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 126: 432-445, 2004.

2. Nizam A., Naing L., Mokhtar N. Age and sequence of eruption of perma-nent teeth in Kelantan, north-eastern Malaysia. Clin Oral Investig 7:

222- 225, 2003.

3. Rousset M.M., Boualam N., Delfosse C., Roberts W.E. Emergence of permanent teeth: secular trends and variance in a modern sample. J Dent Child 70: 208-214, 2003.

4. Leroy R., Bogaerts K., Lesaffre E., Declerck D. The emergence of perma-nent teeth in Flemish children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 31: 30-39, 2003.

5. Mugonzibwa E.A., Kuijpers-Jagtman A.M., Laine-Alava M.T., van’t Hof

M. A. Emergence of permanent teeth in Tanzanian children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 30: 455-462, 2002.

6. Elmes A., Dykes E. A pilot study to determine the order of emergence of permanent central incisors and permanent first molars of children in the Colchester area of the U.K. J Forensic Odontostomatol 15:1-4, 1997.

7. Garn S.M., Sandusky S.T., Nagy J.M., Trowbridge F.L. Negre-Caucasoid difference in permanent tooth emergence at a constant income level. Arch Oral Biol 18: 606-615, 1973.

8. Hatton M.E. A measure of the effects of heredity and environment on erup-tion of the deciduous teeth. J Dent Res 34: 397-401, 1955.

9. Pahkala R., Pahkala A., Laine T. Eruption pattern of permanent teeth in a rural community in northeastern Finland. Acta Odontol Scand 49: 341-349, 1991.

10. Virtanen J.I., Bloigu R.S., Larmas M.A. Timing of eruption of permanent teeth: standard Finnish patient documents. Community Dent Oral Epide-miol 22: 286-288, 1994.

11. Manji F., Mwaniki D. Estimation of median age of eruption of permanent teeth in Kenyan African children. East Afr Med J 62: 252-259, 1985.

12. Saleem M.A., Hagg U., Jalil F., Zaman S. Dental development, dental age and tooth counts. A prospective longitudinal study of Pakistani children. Swed Dent J 20:61-67, 1996.

13. Houpt M.I., Adu-Aryee S., Grainger R.M. Eruption times of permanent teeth in the Brong Ahafo region of Ghana. Am J Orthod 53: 95-99, 1967.

14. Eskeli R., Laine-Alava M.T., Hausen H., Pahkala R. Standards of perma-nent tooth emergence in Finnish children. Angle Orthod 69: 529-533, 1999.

15. Krumholt L., Roed-Peterson B., Pindborg J.J. Eruption times of the perma-nent teeth in 622 Ugandan children. Arch Oral Biol 16: 12811288, 1971.

16. Billewicz W.Z., McGregor I.A. Eruption of permanent teeth in West African (Gambian) children in relation to age, sex and physique. Ann Human Biol 2: 117-128, 1975.

17. Hassanali J., Odhiambo J.W. Ages of eruption of the permanent teeth in Kenyan African and Asian children. Ann Human Biol 8: 425-434, 1981.

18. Wedl J.S., Schoder V., Blake F.A., Schmelzle R., Friedrich R.E. Eruption times of permanent teeth in teenage boys and girls in Izmir (Turkey). J Clin Forensic Med 11: 299-302, 2004.

19. Carvalho J.C., Ekstrand K.R., Thylstrup A. Dental plaque and caries on occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars in relation to stage of eruption. J Dent Res 68: 773-779, 1989.

20. Diamanti J., Townsend G.C. New standards for permanent tooth emergence in Australian children. Aust Dent J 48:39-42, 2003.

21. Demirjian A., Levesque G.Y. Sexual differences in dental development and prediction of emergence. J Dent Res 59: 1110-1122, 1980.

22. Garcia-Godoy F., Diaz A.N., del Valle J.M., Arana E.J. Timing of perma-nent tooth emergence in a South-eastern Dominican schoolchildren popu-lation sample. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 10: 43-46, 1982.

23. Kochhar R., Richardson A. The chronology and sequence of eruption of human permanent teeth in Northern Ireland. Int J Paediatr Dent 8: 243-252, 1998.

24. Hägg U., Taranger J. Dental development dental age and tooth counts. Angle Orthod 55: 93-107, 1985.

25. Wedl J.S., Danias S., Schmelzle R., Friedrich R.E. Eruption times of perma-nent teeth in children and young adolescents in Athens (Greece). Clin Oral Investig 2005 9:131-134, 2005.

26. Khan N.B., Chohan A.N., Al-Mograbi B., Al-Deyab S., Zahid T., Al-Moutairi M. Eruption time of permanent first molars and incisors among a sample of Saudi male schoolchildren. Saudi Dent J 18; 18-24, 2006.

27. Moslemi M. An epidemiological survey of the time and sequence of erup-tion of permanent teeth in 4-15-year-olds in Tehran, Iran. Int J Paediatr Dent 14: 432-438, 2004.

28. Lysell L., Magnusson B., Thilander B. Time and order of eruption of primary teeth. Odontology Revy 13: 217-234, 1962.

29. Carlos J.P., Gittelsohn A.M. Longitudinal studies of the natural history of caries. I. Eruption patterns of the permanent teeth. J Dent Res 1965;44: 509- 516, 1965.

30. Leroy R., Cecere S., Lesaffre E., Declerck D. Variability in permanent tooth emergence sequences in Flemish children. Eur J Oral Sci 116: 11-17, 2008.

31. Agarwal K.N., Gupta R., Faridi M.M., Kalra N. Permanent dentition in Delhi boys of age 5-14 years. Indian Pediatr 41: 1031-1035, 2004.

32. McDonald R.E., Avery D.R. Eruption of the teeth: local, systemic, and congenital factors that influence the process. In: McDonald RE, Avery DR, eds. Dentistry for the child and adolescent. St Louis; Washington, DC; Toronto: The CV Mosby Co., 1987; 189-218.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,500 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

PubMed (MEDLINE) PubMed comprises more than 35 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

Biological Abstracts Easily discover critical journal coverage of the life sciences with Biological Abstracts, produced by the Web of Science Group, with topics ranging from botany to microbiology to pharmacology. Including BIOSIS indexing and MeSH terms, specialized indexing in Biological Abstracts helps you to discover more accurate, context-sensitive results.

Google Scholar Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines.

JournalSeek Genamics JournalSeek is the largest completely categorized database of freely available journal information available on the internet. The database presently contains 39226 titles. Journal information includes the description (aims and scope), journal abbreviation, journal homepage link, subject category and ISSN.

Current Contents - Clinical Medicine Current Contents - Clinical Medicine provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in clinical medicine.

BIOSIS Previews BIOSIS Previews is an English-language, bibliographic database service, with abstracts and citation indexing. It is part of Clarivate Analytics Web of Science suite. BIOSIS Previews indexes data from 1926 to the present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Scopus: CiteScore 2.0 (2022) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Submission Turnaround Time