Article Data

  • Views 669
  • Dowloads 182

Original Research

Open Access

Enamel Thickness in Primary Teeth

  • Arangannal P1
  • Chandra B1,*,
  • Hariharan VS1
  • Vishnurekha1
  • Jeevarathan1
  • Vijayaprabha1

1,Department of Paedodontics and Preventive Dentistry. Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital

DOI: 10.17796/jcpd.37.2.d6837416076l3334 Vol.37,Issue 2,March 2013 pp.177-182

Published: 01 March 2013

*Corresponding Author(s): Chandra B E-mail:


Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the enamel thickness of all primary teeth in both maxilla and mandible. Study Design: An in vitro study was performed with fifty primary teeth including five each of central and lateral incisor, canine, first and second primary molars in both maxillary and mandibular region. Samples were mounted on wax sheets and scanned using a 64-slice CT scanner, which were then 3D reconstructed. Three serial slices were obtained from the middle of the coronal portion of each tooth. Volume rendering was done to differentiate three distinct zones of enamel, dentin and the pulp from each slice. A box was constructed touching the borders of the image on all the surfaces and the mid-point of each side was taken to measure the enamel thickness. Results: Tests used were ANOVA, Post-hoc Tukey's test and student's paired t-test. Enamel thickness was not the same on all the sides. Intergroup comparisons between maxillary anterior and posterior teeth showed difference in enamel thickness. On comparing the mandibular anterior and posterior teeth, the posteriors showed a greater value of enamel thickness on all the sides.(p<0.05). Conclusion: Primary enamel does not follow the same thickness patterns on all sides. It is also different in each primary tooth. There was an increase in enamel thickness in posterior teeth on comparison to their anterior counterparts in both maxilla and mandible. Enamel thickness was more on the distal aspect compared to mesial in all samples.


Enamel thickness, Primary teeth, 64-slice CT scanner, Volume rendering, Tests, Intergroup comparisons

Cite and Share

Arangannal P,Chandra B,Hariharan VS,Vishnurekha,Jeevarathan,Vijayaprabha. Enamel Thickness in Primary Teeth. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2013. 37(2);177-182.


1. Gillings B, Buonocore M. An investigation of enamel thickness in human lower incisor teeth. J Dent Res;105-118, 1961.

2. Black G.V. Descriptive anatomy of Human teeth, 4th ed. Philadelphia: S.S. White Dental Manufacturing Co., 1902.

3. Stanley J. Nelson. Wheeler’s Dental Anatomy, Physiology, and Occlusion, 8th ed. Philadelphia and London: W.B. Saunders Co., 2010

4. Grine FE, Martin LB. Enamel thickness and development in Autralo-pithecus and Paranthropus. In Evolutionary history of the “robust” australopithecines (ed. F.Grine), pp. 3–42. New York, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.

5. Mahoney P. Two dimensional patterns of human enamel thickness on deciduous (dm1,dm2) and permanent first (M1) mandibular molars. Arch Oral Biol 55; 115-126,2010

6. Feeney M, Robin N, Zermeno PJ, Reid JD, Nakashima S, Sano H, Bahar A. Enamel thickness in Asian human canines and premolars. J Anthropol Sci 118; 191-198,2010.

7. Grine EF., Stevens JN, Jungers LW. An evaluation of dental radiograph accuracy in the measurement of enamel thickness. Arch Oral Biol 46; 1117-1125,2001

8. Hall NE, Lindauer JS, Tufekci E. Predictors of variation in mandibular incisor enamel thickness. J Am Dent Assoc 138; 809-815,2007.

9. Lingxia Z, Liang Z, Feng G, Chu J. Preliminary study on enamel micro-structure of Yuanmou Miocene Hominoids of China. Science in China 46; 1142-1150, 2003.

10. Seow KW, Young GW, Daley T. A study of primary dental enamel from preterm and full-term children using light and electron microscopy. Pediatr Dent 27; 374-379,2005.

11. Olejniczak JA, Grine EF. High-resolution measurement of Neandertal tooth enamel thickness by micro-focal computed tomography. S Afr J Sci 101; 219- 220,2005.

12. Olejniczak JA, Grine EF. Assessment of the accuracy of dental enamel thickness measurements using microfocal X-ray Computed Tomography. The Anat Rec Part A 288A; 263-275,2006.

13. Smith MT, Olejniczak JA. Molar crown thickness, volume and development in South African Middle stone age humans. S Afr J Sci 102;513-517,2006.

14. Swain VM, Jing X. State of the art of micro-ct applications in dental research. Int J Oral Sci 1; 177-188,2009.

15. Smith MT, Olejniczak JA, Reid JD, Ferrel JR. Modern human molar enamel thickness and enamel-dentin junction shape. Arch Oral Biol; 974- 995, 2006.

16. Bozkurt OF, Tagtekin AD, Hayran O, Stookey KG, Yanikoglu CF. Accuracy of ultrasound measurement of progressive change in occlusal enamel thick-ness. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 99; 101-5,2005.

17. Hyhun HK, Kin WJ. Thickness and microhardness of deciduous tooth enamel with known dlx3 mutation. Arch Oral Biol 54; 830-834,2009.

18. Alvesalo L, Tammisalo E. Enamel thickness in 45,X female’s permanent teeth. Am J Hum Genet 33; 464-469,1981.

19. Sandhya R, Velumurgan AN. Assessment of root canal morphology of mandibular first premolars in the Indian population using spiral computed tomography: An in vitro study. Ind J Dent Res 21; 169-173,2010.

20. Kottoor J, Velumurgan AN, Sudha R, Hemamalathi S. Maxillary first molar with seven root canals diagnosed with cone-beam computed tomography scanning: A case report. JOE 1;1-7,2010.

21. Sharma D, Mathur M. A computed tomographic study of canal variations in maxillary and mandibular teeth in Jaipur population- an in vitro study. Peopl J Sci Res 4; 1-5,2011.

22. Fernandes AS, FlabioFV, Scavone-Jr H. Crown dimensions and proximal enamel thickness of mandibular second bicuspids. Braz Oral Res 25; 324- 30,2011.

23. Franco DMK, Sergio RPL, Moura-Ribeiro LVM. Prenatal and neonatal variables associated with enamel hypoplasia in deciduous teeth in low birth weight preterm infants. J Appl Oral Sci 15; 518-23,2007.

24. Nathani P, Naik S, Singh PM, Verghese S. Endodontic applications of spiral computed tomography. People’s journal of Scientific Research 2; 31- 34,2009.

25. Kono TR. Molar enamel thickness and distribution patterns in extant great apes and humans: new insights based on a 3-dimensional whole crown perspective. J Anthropol Sci 112; 121-146,2004.

26. Zuanon CCA, Lourdes SP, Elcilaine RA. Primary tooth enamel loss after manual and mechanical microabrasion. Pediatr Dent 30; 420-3,2008.

27. Stroud LJ, English J, Buschang HP. Enamel thickness of the posterior dentition: its implication for non-extraction treatment. Angle Orthod 68; 141- 146,1998.

28. Lucas P, Constantino P, Bernard Wood, and Lawn B. Dental enamel as a dietary indicator in mammals. BioEssays 30; 374-375, 2008.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,500 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

PubMed (MEDLINE) PubMed comprises more than 35 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

Biological Abstracts Easily discover critical journal coverage of the life sciences with Biological Abstracts, produced by the Web of Science Group, with topics ranging from botany to microbiology to pharmacology. Including BIOSIS indexing and MeSH terms, specialized indexing in Biological Abstracts helps you to discover more accurate, context-sensitive results.

Google Scholar Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines.

JournalSeek Genamics JournalSeek is the largest completely categorized database of freely available journal information available on the internet. The database presently contains 39226 titles. Journal information includes the description (aims and scope), journal abbreviation, journal homepage link, subject category and ISSN.

Current Contents - Clinical Medicine Current Contents - Clinical Medicine provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in clinical medicine.

BIOSIS Previews BIOSIS Previews is an English-language, bibliographic database service, with abstracts and citation indexing. It is part of Clarivate Analytics Web of Science suite. BIOSIS Previews indexes data from 1926 to the present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Scopus: CiteScore 2.0 (2022) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Submission Turnaround Time