Article Data

  • Views 669
  • Dowloads 131

Original Research

Open Access

Molecular Detection of Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas Gingivalis in Subgingival Plaque of Healthy Young Children

  • Arangannal P1
  • Nallasivam KU1
  • Vijayaprabha K1,*,
  • Vishnurekha C1
  • Jeevarathan J1
  • Hariharan VS1
  • Mahalakshmi K1
  • Padmavathy K1

1Department of Paedodontics and Preventive Dentistry., Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Vlachery main road, Chennai.

DOI: 10.17796/jcpd.37.4.l083383k15563505 Vol.37,Issue 4,July 2013 pp.361-365

Published: 01 July 2013

*Corresponding Author(s): Vijayaprabha K E-mail:


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) in subgingival plaque of healthy young children aged between 3 and 15 years using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and to compare their presence in children in their primary, mixed and permanent dentitions. Method: Subgingival plaque samples were collected from 120 healthy children and were grouped as Group I-Deciduous dentition, Group II- Mixed dentition and Group III- Permanent dentition, and were subjected to PCR assay. Results: Binomial test and Proportions test were used for statistical analysis. A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis were detected in 5% and 35%, 12.5% and 20%, and 0% and 27.5% samples in group I, II and III respectively Conclusion: Both the microorganisms were present in group I and II. In group III only P. gingivalis was present. The results from this study do not necessarily pertain to differences in dentition but possibly to inter-individual differences


Periodontal disease, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Polymerase Chain Reaction

Cite and Share

Arangannal P,Nallasivam KU,Vijayaprabha K,Vishnurekha C, Jeevarathan J,Hariharan VS,Mahalakshmi K,Padmavathy K. Molecular Detection of Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas Gingivalis in Subgingival Plaque of Healthy Young Children. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2013. 37(4);361-365.


1. Shivalal Sharma, Saimbi CS, Bandana Koirala, Rakesh Shukla. Effect of Various Mouthwashes on the Levels of Interleukin-2 and Interferon in Chronic Gingivitis. J Clin Pediatr Dent 32; 111–114, 2007.

2. Newman MG, Takei HH, Klokkevold PR, Carranza FA. Carranza’s Clinical periodontology.11th edition. Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc, 2012.

3. Okada M, Hayashi F, Nagasaka N. PCR detection of 5 putative periodontal pathogens in dental plaque samples from children 2 to 12 years of age. J Clin Periodontol 28; 576–582, 2001.

4. Nakano K, Miyamoto E, Tamura K, Nemoto H, Fujita K, Nomura R, Ooshima T. Distribution of 10 periodontal bacterial species in children and adolescents over a 7 year period. Oral Disease 14; 658-664, 2008.

5. Ooshima T, Nishiyama N, Hou B, Tamura K, Amano A, Kusumoto A, Kimura S Occurrence of periodontal bacteria in healthy children: a 2 year longitudinal study. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 31; 417-425, 2003.

6. Socransky SS, Haffajee AD. Periodontal microbial ecology. Perio 2000 38; 135-187, 2005.

7. Stanley C Holt, Jeffrey L Ebersole. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia: the red complex, a prototype polybacterial pathogenic consortium in periodontitis. Perio 2000 38; 72–122, 2005.

8. Watson MR, Lopatin DE, Bretz WA, Ertel IJ, Loesche WJ 1991. Detection of Two Anaerobic Periodontopathogens in Children by Means of the BANA and ELISA Assays. J Dent Res 70; 1052-1056, 1991.

9. Suda R, Kurihara C, Kurihara M, Sato T, Lai C-H, Hasegawa K. Detection of eight selected periodontal pathogens in subgingival plaque of maxillary first molars in Japanese school children aged 8-11 years. J Periodontol Res 38; 28-36, 2003.

10. Ashimoto A, Chen C, Bakker I, Slots J. Polymerase chain reaction detection of 8 putative pathogen in subgingival plaque of gingivitis and advanced periodontitis lesions. Oral Microbiol Immunol 11; 266 -273, 1996.

11. Slots, J., Ashimoto, A., Flynn, M.J., Li, G.L., Chen, C. (1995).Detection of putative pathogens in subgingival specimens by 16S ribosomal DNA amplification with the polymerase chain reaction. Clin Infect Dis 20; 304-307, 1995.

12. Kilian M and Rölla G. Initial colonization of teeth in monkeys as related to diet. Infect. Immun 14; 1022-1027, 1976.

13. Kilian M, Prachyabrued W, and Theilade E. Haemophili in developing dental plaque. Scand J dent Res 84; 16-19, 1976.

14. Alaluusua S, Asikainen S. Detection and distribution of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in the primary dentition. J Periodontol 59; 504-507, 1988.

15. Frisken KW, Tagg JR, Laws AJ, Orr MB. Suspected periodontopathic icroorganisms and their oral habitats in young children. Oral microbiol immunol 2; 60-64, 1987.

16. Kononen E, Asikainen S, Jousimies-Somer H. The early colonization of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria in edentulous infants. Oral Microbiol Immunol 7; 28-31, 1992.

17. Kononen E, Asikainen S, SA. actinomycetemcomitansrela M, Karjalainen J, Jousimies- Somer H. The oral gram-negative anaerobic microflora in young children: longitudinal changes from edentulous to dentate mouth. Oral Microbiol Immunol 9; 136-141, 1994.

18. Riggio MP, Macfarlane TW, Mackenzie D, Lennon A, Smith AJ, Kinane D. Comparison of polymerase chain reaction and culture methods for detection of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in subgingival plaque samples. J Period Res 31; 496–501, 1996.

19. Doungudomdacha S, Rawlinson A, Douglas CW. Enumeration of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Actinobacillus actinomycentemcomitans in subgingival plaque samples by a quantitative-competitive PCR method. J. Med. Microbiol 49; 861-874, 2000.

20. Lamell CW, Griffen A, Mcclellan D, Leys EJ. Acquisition and colonization stability of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in children. J of Clin Microbiol 38; 1196–1199, 2010.

21. Kulekci G, Leblebicioglu B, Keskina F, Ciftcia S, Badur S. Salivary detection of periodontopathic bacteria in periodontally healthy children. Oral and dental bacteriol and infection 14; 49–54, 2007.

22. Frisken KW, Higgins T, Palmer JM. The incidence of periodontopathic icroorganisms in young children. Oral Microbiol Immunol 5; 43-45, 1990.

23. Sakai V T, Campos M R, Machado M A A M, Lauris J R P, Greene A S, Santos C F. Prevalence of four putative periodontopathic bacteria in saliva of a group of Brazilian children with mixed dentition: 1-year longitudinal study. Int Paed Dent 17; 192–199, 2007.

24. Kimura S, Ooshima T, Takiguchi M, Sasaki Y, Amano A, Morisaki I. Periodontopathic Bacterial Infection in Childhood. J Periodontol; 73; 20-26, 2002.

25. Ardin CA, Nakano K, Yamana A, Okawa R, Naka S, Matsumoto M, Ooshima T. Successful application of molecular biological technique for evaluation of changes in periodontopathic bacteria in Japanese children with developmental disabilities. Ped Dent ; 2; 56–62, 2011.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,500 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Biological Abstracts Easily discover critical journal coverage of the life sciences with Biological Abstracts, produced by the Web of Science Group, with topics ranging from botany to microbiology to pharmacology. Including BIOSIS indexing and MeSH terms, specialized indexing in Biological Abstracts helps you to discover more accurate, context-sensitive results.

Google Scholar Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines.

JournalSeek Genamics JournalSeek is the largest completely categorized database of freely available journal information available on the internet. The database presently contains 39226 titles. Journal information includes the description (aims and scope), journal abbreviation, journal homepage link, subject category and ISSN.

Current Contents - Clinical Medicine Current Contents - Clinical Medicine provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in clinical medicine.

BIOSIS Previews BIOSIS Previews is an English-language, bibliographic database service, with abstracts and citation indexing. It is part of Clarivate Analytics Web of Science suite. BIOSIS Previews indexes data from 1926 to the present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Scopus: CiteScore 2.0 (2022) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Submission Turnaround Time