Article Data

  • Views 2359
  • Dowloads 385

Original Research

Open Access

Evaluation of the relationship between anxiety levels and dental appearance

  • Gamze Metin-Gürsoy1,*,
  • Ayse Bikem Haciomeroglu2
  • Selin Kale-Varlık1
  • Tuba Tortop1

1Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey, Bişkek cad. 1. Sok. No:4 06510 Emek, Ankara, Turkey

2Department of Psychology, Hacettepe University, 06800, Ankara, Turkey

DOI: 10.22514/jocpd.2023.018 Vol.47,Issue 4,July 2023 pp.40-45

Submitted: 06 November 2022 Accepted: 15 February 2023

Published: 03 July 2023

*Corresponding Author(s): Gamze Metin-Gürsoy E-mail: gamgursoy@gmail.com

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between personal traits, dental anxiety level and dental appearance of the individuals. Study Design: The study included 431 individuals who completed State Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Form (STAI-T) and Corah’s Dental Anxiety Scale (CDAS) questionnaires during their first appointment at the orthodontic clinic. The Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON) index scoring was performed using intraoral frontal photographs by an orthodontist. According to the STAI-T scores, three anxiety groups were formed: mild, moderate, and severe. The Kruskal-Wallis H test was used for intergroup comparisons. Spearman’s correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between STAI-T, CDAS, and ICON scores. Results: It was found that 38.28% of the participants had mild, 34.1% had severe, and 27.62% had moderate anxiety levels. CDAS score was significantly lower in the mild anxiety group (p ≤ 0.0001) compared to the groups showing moderate and severe anxiety. There was no significant difference between the moderate and severe anxiety groups. ICON score was significantly higher in the severe anxiety group (p ≤ 0.0001) than the other groups. It was also significantly higher in the moderate anxiety group (p ≤ 0.0001) than in the mild anxiety group. There was a significant positive correlation between STAI-T and both CDAS and ICON scores. There was no significant correlation between CDAS and ICON scores. Conclusion: Dental appearance had a significant effect on the general anxiety of individuals. Improving the dental appearance with orthodontic treatments can have positive effects on reducing anxiety. The low level of dental anxiety in individuals with a high need for treatment will facilitate the work of the orthodontist in the procedures to be applied.


Keywords

Aesthetics; Malocclusion; Psychology


Cite and Share

Gamze Metin-Gürsoy,Ayse Bikem Haciomeroglu,Selin Kale-Varlık,Tuba Tortop. Evaluation of the relationship between anxiety levels and dental appearance. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2023. 47(4);40-45.

References

[1] Bos A, Hoogstraten J, Prahl-Andersen B. Expectations of treatment and satisfaction with dentofacial appearance in orthodontic patient. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. 2003; 123: 349–356.

[2] Faure JC. The influence of different facial components on facial aesthetics. The European Journal of Orthodontics. 2002; 24: 1–7.

[3] Papio MA, Fields HW, Beck FM, Firestone AR, Rosenstiel SF. The effect of dental and background facial attractiveness on facial attractiveness and perceived integrity and social and intellectual qualities. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. 2019; 156: 464–474.e1.

[4] Bernabe E, De Oliveira CS, Sheiham A. Condition-specific, sociodental, impacts attributed to different anterior occlusal traits in Brazilian adolescent. European Journal of Oral Sciences. 2007; 115: 473–478.

[5] Marques LS, Ramos-Jorge ML, Paiva SM, Pordeus IA. Malocclusion: esthetic impact and quality of life among Brazilian schoolchildren. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. 2006; 129: 424–427.

[6] Wolfart S, Quaas AC, Freitag S, Kropp P, Gerber W, Kern M. General well-being as an important co-factor of self-assessment of dental appearance. The International Journal of Prosthodontics. 2006; 19: 449–454.

[7] Klages U, Claus N, Wehrbein H, Zentner A. Development of a questionnaire for assessment of the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics in young adults. European Journal of Orthodontics. 2006; 28: 103–111.

[8] Klages U, Erbe C, Sandru SD, Brüllman D, Wehrbein H. Psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics in adolescence: validity and reliability of a questionnaire across age-groups. Quality of Life Research. 2015; 24: 379–390.

[9] Ellakany P, Fouda SM, Alghamdi M, Bakhurji E. Factors affecting dental self-confidence and satisfaction with dental appearance among adolescents in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study. BMC Oral Health. 2021; 21: 149.

[10] Spielberg CD. Manual for the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (Form Y). Consulting Psychologist press: Palo Alto. 1983.

[11] Appukuttan DP. Strategies to manage patients with dental anxiety and dental phobia: literature review. Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry. 2016; 8: 35–50.

[12] Daniels C, Richmond S. The development of the index of complexity, outcome and need (ICON). Journal of Orthodontics. 2000; 27: 149–162.

[13] Klingberg G, Broberg AG. Dental fear/anxiety and dental behaviour management problems in children and adolescents: a review of prevalence and concomitant psychological factors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry. 2007; 17: 391–406.

[14] Milgrom P, Mancl L, King B, Weinstein P. Origins of childhood dental fear. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 1995; 33: 313–319.

[15] Raadal M, Strand GV, Amarante EC, Kvale G. Relationship between caries prevalence at 5 years of age and dental anxiety at 10. European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry. 2002; 3: 22–26.

[16] Raadal M, Milgrom P, Weinstein P, Mancl L, Cauce AM. The prevalence of dental anxiety in children from low-income families and its relationship to personality traits. Journal of Dental Research. 1995; 74: 1439–1443.

[17] Themessl-Huber M, Freeman R, Humphris G. Empirical evidence of the relationship between parental and child dental fear: a structured review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry. 2010; 20: 83–101.

[18] Klingberg G, Broberg AG. Temperament and child dental fear. Pediatric Dentistry. 1998; 20: 237–243.

[19] Zhou Y, Cameron E, Forbes G, Humphris G. Systematic review of the effect of dental staff behaviour on child dental patient anxiety and behaviour. Patient Education and Counseling. 2011; 85: 4–13.

[20] Thomson WM, Poulton RG, Kruger E, Davies S, Brown RH, Silva PA. Changes in self-reported dental anxiety in New Zealand adolescents from ages 15 to 18 years. Journal of Dental Research. 1997; 76: 1287–1291.

[21] Wogelius P, Poulsen S, Sorensen HT. Prevalence of dental anxiety and behaviour management problems among six to eight years old Danish children. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica. 2003; 61: 178–183.

[22] Haugejorden O, Solveig Klock K. Avoidance of dental visits: the predictive validity of three dental anxiety scales. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica. 2000; 58: 255–259.

[23] Sarı Z, Uysal T, Karaman AI, Sargin N, Ure O. Does orthodontic treatment affect patient’ and parents’ anxiety levels? European Journal of Orthodontics. 2005; 27: 155–159.

[24] Maj G, Squarzoni Grilli AT, Belletti MF. Psychologic appraisal of children facing orthodontic treatment. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. 1967; 53: 849–857.

[25] Kazancı F, Aydoğan C, Akan Ö. Patients’ and parents’ concern and decisions about orthodontic treatment. Korean Journal of Orthodontics. 2016; 46: 20–26.

[26] Carlsson V, Hakeberg M, Blomkvist K, Boman UW. Orofacial esthetics and dental anxiety: associations with oral and psychological health. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica. 2014; 72: 707–713.

[27] Carlsson V, Hakeberg M, Boman UW. Associations between dental anxiety, sense of coherence, oral health-related quality of life and health behavior—a national Swedish cross-sectional survey. BMC Oral Health. 2015; 15: 1–8.

[28] De Oliveira Meira ACL, Custodio W, Filho MW, Borges TM, C Meneghim M, Santamaria M Jr, et al. How is orthodontic treatment need associated with per ceived esthetic impact of malocclusion in adolescent?American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. 2020; 158: 668–673.

[29] Kaieda AK, Bulgareli JV, Cunha IPD, Vedovello SAS, Guerra LM, Ambrosano GMB, et al. Malocclusion and dental appearance in underprivileged Brazilian adolescent. Brazilian Oral Research. 2019; 33: 14.

[30] Roy J, Dempster LJ. Dental anxiety associated with orthodontic care: prevalence and contributing factors. Seminars in Orthodontics. 2018; 24: 233–241.

[31] Romero-Maroto M, Santos-Puerta N, González Olmo MJ, Peñacoba-Puente C. The impact of dental appearance and anxiety on self-esteem in adults orthodontic patients. Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research. 2015; 18: 143–155.

[32] Wan Hassan WN, Makhbul MZM, Othman SA. Age and gender are associated with the component of psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics questionnaire in young people: a cross-sectional study. Children. 2022; 9: 496.

[33] Doganer YC, Aydogan U, Ucler Yesil H, Rohrer JE, Williams MD, Agerter DC. Does the trait anxiety affect the dental fear? Brazilian Oral Research. 2017; 31: 36.

[34] Ekuni D, Furuta M, Irie K, Azuma T, Tomofuji T, Murakami T, et al. Relationship between impacts attributed to malocclusion and psychological stress in young Japanese adults. European Journal of Orthodontics. 2011; 33: 558–563.

[35] Klages U, Ulusoy Ö, Kianifard S, Wehrbein H. Dental trait anxiety and pain sensitivity as predictors of expected and experienced pain in stressful dental procedures. European Journal of Oral Sciences. 2004; 112: 477–483.

[36] McNeil DW, Berryman ML. Components of dental fear in adults. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 1989; 27: 233–236.

[37] Van Wijk AJ, Jongh AD, Lindeboom JA. Anxiety sensitivity as a predictor of anxiety and pain related to third molar removal. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 2010; 68: 2723–2729.

[38] Maggirias J, Locker D. Psychological factors and perceptions of pain associated with dental treatment. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology. 2002; 30: 151–159.

[39] Krishnan V. Orthodontic pain: from causes to management—a review. European Journal of Orthodontics. 2007; 29: 170–179.

[40] Long H, Zhou Y, Pyakurel U, Liao L, Jian F, Xue J, et al. Comparison of adverse effects between lingual and labial orthodontic treatment. The Angle Orthodontist. 2013; 83: 1066–1073.

[41] Brown DF, Moerenhout RG. The pain experience and psychological adjustment to orthodontic treatment of preadolescent, adolescents, and adults. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. 1991; 100: 349–356.

[42] Kluemper GT, Hiser DG, Rayens MK, Jay MJ. Efficiancy of a wax containing benzocaine in the relief of oral mucosa pain caused by orthodontic appliances. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. 2002; 122: 359–365.

[43] O’Connor PJ. Patients’ perceptions before, during, and after orthodontic treatment. Journal of Clinical Orthodontics. 2000; 34: 591–592.


Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,500 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Biological Abstracts Easily discover critical journal coverage of the life sciences with Biological Abstracts, produced by the Web of Science Group, with topics ranging from botany to microbiology to pharmacology. Including BIOSIS indexing and MeSH terms, specialized indexing in Biological Abstracts helps you to discover more accurate, context-sensitive results.

Google Scholar Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines.

JournalSeek Genamics JournalSeek is the largest completely categorized database of freely available journal information available on the internet. The database presently contains 39226 titles. Journal information includes the description (aims and scope), journal abbreviation, journal homepage link, subject category and ISSN.

Current Contents - Clinical Medicine Current Contents - Clinical Medicine provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in clinical medicine.

BIOSIS Previews BIOSIS Previews is an English-language, bibliographic database service, with abstracts and citation indexing. It is part of Clarivate Analytics Web of Science suite. BIOSIS Previews indexes data from 1926 to the present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Scopus: CiteScore 2.0 (2022) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Submission Turnaround Time

Conferences

Top