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Original Research

Open Access

Long-term outcome of oral health in uncooperative children with caries treated under general anesthesia

  • Liatsi Aikaterini1
  • Agouropoulos Andreas1,*,
  • Balta G Maria2
  • Tsiligianni Athanasia1
  • Gizani Sotiria1

1Department of Paediatric Dentistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece

2Periodontology and Implant Dentistry, The CrossTalk group, Institute of Oral Biology, Dental faculty, University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo, Norway

DOI: 10.22514/jocpd.2023.024 Vol.47,Issue 3,May 2023 pp.64-70

Submitted: 02 November 2022 Accepted: 05 January 2023

Published: 03 May 2023

*Corresponding Author(s): Agouropoulos Andreas E-mail:


Although uncooperative children with extensive caries can be treated under general anesthesia (GA), they remain at high-risk for caries recurrence. This study aimed to assess the long-term outcome of the dental health of uncooperative healthy children (HC) and special needs patients (SNP) treated under GA at least 2 years before this study. Data were collected via questionnaire and oral examination. Oral hygiene was assessed using the Hygiene Index, while caries were recorded using ICDAS II. The dmfs/DMFS score was calculated for every participant. A total of 69 patients completed the questionnaire, and 37 were clinically examined (HC = 15, SNP = 22). The mean (±SD-standard diviation) follow-up time was 5.5 (±2.55) years, the mean DMFS score for HC was 6.39 (±4.99), and the mean DMFS score for SNP was 12.95 (±12.29). The SNP group had significantly more filled surfaces on permanent teeth than the HC group (6.18 (±6.17) vs. 1.54 (±3.27), p = 0.004). In regard to primary teeth, HC had a higher dmfs, indicating a clear trend for more decayed surfaces in this group of participants (p = 0.08). The DMFS score was significantly higher in children who underwent GA more than 5 years ago. Oral health-related behavior was not improved as expected. Altogether, HC and SNP have poor oral hygiene and high caries risk in primary and permanent dentition, and their treatment remains challenging.


Dental general anesthesia; Long-term outcome; Special needs patients; Caries recurrence; Follow-ups

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Liatsi Aikaterini,Agouropoulos Andreas,Balta G Maria,Tsiligianni Athanasia,Gizani Sotiria. Long-term outcome of oral health in uncooperative children with caries treated under general anesthesia. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2023. 47(3);64-70.


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