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Original Research

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Bisphenol A release from commercially available 3-dimensionally printed resins and human cell apoptosis to bisphenol A: an in-vitro study

  • Yun Sun Jung1,2,†
  • Sang Tae Ro1,2
  • Sang Wook Kang3,†
  • Hyeonjong Lee4
  • Jang Sun Lee5
  • Yong Kwon Chae1,2
  • Ko Eun Lee1
  • Hyo-Seol Lee1,6
  • Kyu Hwan Kwack7
  • Su Kang Kim8
  • Sung Chul Choi1,6
  • Ok Hyung Nam1,6,*,

1Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, 02447 Seoul, Republic of Korea

2Department of Dentistry, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, 02447 Seoul, Republic of Korea

3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, 02447 Seoul, Republic of Korea

4Department of Prosthodontics, Dental College, Yonsei University, 03722 Seoul, Republic of Korea

5Dio Implant Ortho Research & Design Center, 48058 Busan, Republic of Korea

6Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, 02447 Seoul, Republic of Korea

7Department of Oral Microbiology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, 02447 Seoul, Republic of Korea

8Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Catholic Kwandong University, 25601 Gangneung, Republic of Korea

DOI: 10.22514/jocpd.2023.027 Vol.47,Issue 3,May 2023 pp.89-95

Submitted: 12 December 2022 Accepted: 13 February 2023

Published: 03 May 2023

*Corresponding Author(s): Ok Hyung Nam E-mail:

† These authors contributed equally.


Bisphenol A (BPA) from dental materials may be linked to children’s health issues. This study aimed to assess the release of BPA from commercially available 3-dimensional (3D)-printed resin materials and evaluate BPA-related apoptotic effects on human periodontal ligament cells and gingival fibroblasts. Commercially available 3D-printed resin materials for prosthodontic use were selected as follows: NextDent C&B MFH (3D Systems, Rock Hill, SC, USA), DIOnavi-P. MAX (Dio Co., Busan, Korea), and DIOnavi-Denture02 (Dio Co., Busan, Korea). Identical cuboidal samples (1 cm × 1 cm × 0.5 cm) were printed from the materials and cured. BPA release was assessed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In addition, human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells were exposed to various BPA solutions based on the LC/MS results. Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses were performed to evaluate BPA-related apoptotic effects. The LC/MS analysis confirmed that none of the 3D-printed resin materials released BPA after curing. Both human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells showed lower viability after BPA exposure. Regarding apoptosis-related gene expression, Caspase10 (CASP10) expression in periodontal ligament cells was significantly different in the BPA solutions (p < 0.05). The expression of BAX and Capspase8 (CASP8) in gingival fibroblasts was significantly increased by BPA in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Within the limitations of this study, the 3D-printed resin materials were not found to release BPA. This finding implies that 3D-printed resin materials are not associated with potential BPA-related risks in children.


3-dimensional printing; Bisphenol A; Children; Dental materials; Digital dentistry; Pediatric dentistry

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Yun Sun Jung,Sang Tae Ro,Sang Wook Kang,Hyeonjong Lee,Jang Sun Lee,Yong Kwon Chae,Ko Eun Lee,Hyo-Seol Lee,Kyu Hwan Kwack,Su Kang Kim,Sung Chul Choi,Ok Hyung Nam. Bisphenol A release from commercially available 3-dimensionally printed resins and human cell apoptosis to bisphenol A: an in-vitro study. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2023. 47(3);89-95.


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