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Original Research

Open Access

Effect of different industrialized acid beverages on the surface roughness of flowable composite resins: in vitro study

  • Lorena Albarran-Martínez1
  • Laura Emma Rodríguez-Vilchis1,*,
  • Rosalía Contreras-Bulnes1
  • María de los Angeles Moyaho-Bernal2
  • Bernardo Teutle-Coyotecatl1

1Center for Research and Advanced Studies in Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Autonomous University of Mexico State, 50130 Toluca, Mexico State, Mexico

2Faculty of Stomatology, Meritorious Autonomous University of Puebla, 72410 Puebla, Puebla, Mexico

DOI: 10.22514/jocpd.2023.065 Vol.47,Issue 5,September 2023 pp.152-161

Submitted: 22 March 2023 Accepted: 08 May 2023

Published: 03 September 2023

*Corresponding Author(s): Laura Emma Rodríguez-Vilchis E-mail:


Flowable composite resins are materials available for restorations in pediatric dentistry. However, these materials are subject to dangerous effects in the oral environment caused by acids that deteriorate and increase their roughness. Therefore it is important to evaluate the effect of different industrialized acid beverages on the roughness of flowable composite resins. An in vitro experimental study, was done using a convenience sample of 132 discs of 5 mm diameter by 2 mm depth of four flowable materials (FF (Filtek™ Z350 XT Flowable), TNF (Tetric® N-Flow), PF (PermaFlo®) and GF (Grandio® Flow)) exposed to three beverages (CC (Coca-Cola), AJ (apple juice), and FM (fermented milk)) and incubated at 37 ºC for 0, 15 and 30 days. The roughness (average roughness (Ra) and maximum height of profile (Rz) parameters) was measured at different intervals of time with a profilometer. For the data analysis, one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) and repeated measures analysis of variance (Repeated measures ANOVA) tests were applied (p < 0.05). In the roughness test before immersion, no differences were observed within the groups, with maximum roughness values for Filtek™ Z350 XT Flowable and minimum for PermaFlo®. However, at 15 and 30 days of immersion, the groups showed significant differences depending on the immersion drink, except Grandio® Flow in apple juice and fermented milk. The flowable materials studied presented specific behaviors according to the immersion period and drink used. The Filtek™ Z350 XT Flowable showed a similar increase in surface roughness independently of the drink used. Grandio® Flow was the most stable material against surface roughness changes after beverage immersion.


Dental materials; Flowable composite resins; Industrialized acidic beverages; Surface roughness

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Lorena Albarran-Martínez,Laura Emma Rodríguez-Vilchis,Rosalía Contreras-Bulnes,María de los Angeles Moyaho-Bernal,Bernardo Teutle-Coyotecatl. Effect of different industrialized acid beverages on the surface roughness of flowable composite resins: in vitro study. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2023. 47(5);152-161.


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