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The knowledge of orthodontic and craniofacial growth amongst Italian Pediatric Medical Residents for early diagnosis in growing patients: a cross-sectional study

  • Maria Francesca Sfondrini1
  • Simone Gallo1
  • Maurizio Pascadopoli1,*,
  • Amelia Licari2,3
  • Gian Luigi Marseglia2,3
  • Paola Gandini1
  • Benedetta Turcato1
  • Maria Gloria Nardi1
  • Andrea Scribante1

1Unit of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, Section of Dentistry, Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy

2Pediatric Clinic, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, 27100 Pavia, Italy

3Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy

DOI: 10.22514/jocpd.2023.072 Vol.47,Issue 6,November 2023 pp.64-73

Submitted: 28 March 2023 Accepted: 19 May 2023

Published: 03 November 2023

*Corresponding Author(s): Maurizio Pascadopoli E-mail:


Paediatric residents usually visit children since the first years of life and can potentially diagnose craniofacial anomalies and malocclusions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the ability of paediatric medical residents to diagnose malocclusions in growing subjects at an early stage. Eighty-three paediatric medical residents from the University of Pavia, Italy, who were enrolled in the Paediatric Residency program, participated in an online questionnaire. The questionnaire covered demographic variables, oral examination practices, dental and orthodontic knowledge, and sources of information. Following this, the residents were presented with a photographic analysis and asked to determine the treatment priority for 10 patients with malocclusions using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). On average, it was recommended that the first orthodontic visit should occur at around 4.92 years of age. The results showed that 75.9% of the residents always performed oral examinations on their patients, and 48.1%assigned a priority score of 8 or higher. The scores obtained by the paediatric residents did not significantly differ based on the year of study, frequency of oral examinations, or sources of information reported. Notably, there was a particular underestimation of treatment priority for malocclusions characterized by a significant increase in overjet. The findings suggest a potential lack of improvement in orthodontic knowledge during the medical residency program. It is recommended to increase the availability of orthodontic information sources for paediatric residents to enhance their understanding in this area.


Paediatricians; Malocclusions; Priority treatment; Orthodontics; Dentistry

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Maria Francesca Sfondrini,Simone Gallo,Maurizio Pascadopoli,Amelia Licari,Gian Luigi Marseglia,Paola Gandini,Benedetta Turcato,Maria Gloria Nardi,Andrea Scribante. The knowledge of orthodontic and craniofacial growth amongst Italian Pediatric Medical Residents for early diagnosis in growing patients: a cross-sectional study. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2023. 47(6);64-73.


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