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The effects of adenoid hypertrophy and oral breathing on maxillofacial development: a review of the literature

  • Yanan Ma1,†
  • Lili Xie2,*,†,
  • Wenhui Wu1,*,

1North China University of Science and Technology, 063000 Tangshan, Hebei, China

2Department of stomatology, Hebei General Hospital, 050000 Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China

DOI: 10.22514/jocpd.2024.001 Vol.48,Issue 1,January 2024 pp.1-6

Submitted: 28 March 2023 Accepted: 12 May 2023

Published: 03 January 2024

*Corresponding Author(s): Lili Xie E-mail:
*Corresponding Author(s): Wenhui Wu E-mail:

† These authors contributed equally.


According to modern epidemiological surveys, the prevalence of adenoid hypertrophy in children and adolescents ranges from 42% to 70%. Adenoid hypertrophy can lead to airway obstruction; thus forces a child to breathe through their mouth, thus affecting the normal development of the dental and maxillofacial area, and can lead to malocclusion. Long-term mouth breathing can cause sagittal, vertical and lateral changes in the maxillofacial area. In this article, we review the current research status relating to the association between adenoid hypertrophy, oral breathing and maxillofacial growth and development in children and adolescents. We also discuss the personalized formulation of treatment plans.


Adenoid hypertrophy; Mouth breathing; Maxillofacial developmental deformities

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Yanan Ma,Lili Xie,Wenhui Wu. The effects of adenoid hypertrophy and oral breathing on maxillofacial development: a review of the literature. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2024. 48(1);1-6.


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