Article Data

  • Views 644
  • Dowloads 194

Original Research

Open Access

Visualization of etching cycles efficacy at the resin infiltration into artificial enamel caries: in-vitro study on bovine teeth

  • Mehmet Çiloğlu1,*,
  • Gül Keskin2

1Uşak Oral and Dental Health Center, 64000 Uşak, Turkey

2Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University, 07400 Antalya, Turkey

DOI: 10.22514/jocpd.2024.021 Vol.48,Issue 1,January 2024 pp.191-197

Submitted: 12 May 2023 Accepted: 28 June 2023

Published: 03 January 2024

*Corresponding Author(s): Mehmet Çiloğlu E-mail:


This study evaluated the effect of repeated etching cycles on resin infiltrant penetration. Enamel samples measuring 4 × 4 × 3 mm3 were obtained from the facial aspect of 50 extracted bovine teeth. Samples were immersed in a demineralization solution for 21 days to create artificial lesions and divided into five equal groups (n = 10). A 15%hydrochloric acid gel was administered to each group. The acid etching application time differed between groups: Group 1; 2 min, Group 2; 2 × 2 min, Group 3; 3 × 2 min, Group 4; 4 × 2 min, and Group 5; 5 × 2 min. Resin infiltration was visualized using a confocal laser scanning microscopy. The lesion, penetration and erosion depth (µm) were calculated, and data were statistically analyzed. The highest penetration depth (75.59 ± 9.42 µm) was seen in Group 5, followed by Groups 4, 3, 2 and 1. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the penetration depths between Groups 4 and 5 and between Groups 2, 3 and 4 (p > 0.05). In conclusion, a repeated etching cycle enhanced resin infiltrant penetration.


Confocal laser scanning microscopy; Resin infiltration; Enamel caries; Acid etching

Cite and Share

Mehmet Çiloğlu,Gül Keskin. Visualization of etching cycles efficacy at the resin infiltration into artificial enamel caries: in-vitro study on bovine teeth. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2024. 48(1);191-197.


[1] Cabalén MB, Molina GF, Bono A, Burrow MF. Nonrestorative caries treatment: a systematic review update. International Dental Journal. 2022; 72: 746–764.

[2] Klaisiri A, Vongsang J, Leelaudom T, Krajangta N. Methylene blue penetration of resin infiltration and resin sealant in artificial white-spot lesions. European Journal of Dentistry. 2022. [Preprint].

[3] Wierichs RJ, Langer F, Kobbe C, Abou-Ayash B, Esteves-Oliveira M, Wolf M, et al. Aesthetic caries infiltration—long-term masking efficacy after 6 years. Journal of Dentistry. 2023; 132: 104474.

[4] Puleio F, Fiorillo L, Gorassini F, Iandolo A, Meto A, D’Amico C, et al. Systematic review on white spot lesions treatments. European Journal of Dentistry. 2022; 16: 41–48.

[5] Li M, Yang Z, Huang Y, Li Y, Zhou Z. In vitro effect of resin infiltrant on resistance of sound enamel surfaces in permanent teeth to demineralization. PeerJ. 2021; 9: e12008.

[6] Prodan D, Moldovan M, Chisnoiu AM, Sarosi C, Cuc S, Filip M, et al. Development of new experimental dental enamel resin infiltrants-synthesis and characterization. Materials. 2022; 15: 803.

[7] Paris S, Meyer-Lueckel H, Cölfen H, Kielbassa AM. Resin infiltration of artificial enamel caries lesions with experimental light curing resins. Dental Materials Journal. 2007; 26: 582–588.

[8] López López EA, Dominguez JA, Gomes GM, Mora CAP, Bittencourt BF, Gomes JC, et al. Effect of conditioning protocols and ultrasonic application of an infiltrant resin in white spot lesions. Brazilian Dental Journal. 2019; 30: 58–65.

[9] Abdelaziz M, Rizzini AL, Bortolotto T, Rocca GT, Feilzer AJ, Garcia-Godoy F, et al. Comparing different enamel pretreatment options for resin-infiltration of natural non-cavitated carious lesions. American Journal of Dentistry. 2016; 29: 3–9.

[10] Neuhaus KW, Schlafer S, Lussi A, Nyvad B. Infiltration of natural caries lesions in relation to their activity status and acid pretreatment in vitro. Caries Research. 2013; 47: 203–210.

[11] Wang L, Freitas MCCDA, Prakki A, Mosquim V, González AHM, Rios D, et al. Experimental self-etching resin infiltrants on the treatment of simulated carious white spot lesions. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials. 2021; 113: 104146.

[12] Meyer-Lueckel H, Paris S, Kielbassa AM. Surface layer erosion of natural caries lesions with phosphoric and hydrochloric acid gels in preparation for resin infiltration. Caries Research. 2007; 41: 223–230.

[13] Paris S, Dörfer CE, Meyer-Lueckel H. Surface conditioning of natural enamel caries lesions in deciduous teeth in preparation for resin infiltration. Journal of Dentistry. 2010; 38: 65–71.

[14] Mazzitelli C, Josic U, Maravic T, Mancuso E, Goracci C, Cadenaro M, et al. An insight into enamel resin infiltrants with experimental compositions. Polymers. 2022; 14: 5553.

[15] Puleio F, Di Spirito F, Lo Giudice G, Pantaleo G, Rizzo D, Lo Giudice R. Long-term chromatic durability of white spot lesions through employment of infiltration resin treatment. Medicina. 2023; 59: 749.

[16] Arnold WH, Haddad B, Schaper K, Hagemann K, Lippold C, Danesh G. Enamel surface alterations after repeated conditioning with HCl. Head & Face Medicine. 2015; 11: 32.

[17] Wierichs RJ, Kogel J, Lausch J, Esteves-Oliveira M, Meyer-Lueckel H. Effects of self-assembling peptide p11-4, fluorides, and caries infiltration on artificial enamel caries lesions in vitro. Caries Research. 2017; 51: 451–459.

[18] Paris S, Bitter K, Renz H, Hopfenmuller W, Meyer-Lueckel H. Validation of two dual fluorescence techniques for confocal microscopic visualization of resin penetration into enamel caries lesions. Microscopy Research and Technique. 2009; 72: 489–494.

[19] Damian LR, Dumitrescu R, Alexa VT, Focht D, Schwartz C, Balean O, et al. Impact of dentistry materials on chemical remineralisation/infiltration versus salivary remineralisation of enamel—in vitro study. Materials. 2022; 15: 7258.

[20] Ionta FQ, Boteon AP, Moretto MJ, Júnior OB, Honório HM, Silva TC, et al. Penetration of resin-based materials into initial erosion lesion: a confocal microscopic study. Microscopy Research and Technique. 2016; 79: 72–80.

[21] Schmidlin PR, Zehnder M, Pasqualetti T, Imfeld T, Besek MJ. Penetration of a bonding agent into De- and remineralized enamel in vitro. Journal of Adhesive Dentistry. 2004; 6: 111–115.

[22] Möhring S, Cieplik F, Hiller KA, Ebensberger H, Ferstl G, Hermens J, et al. Elemental compositions of enamel or dentin in human and bovine teeth differ from murine teeth. Materials. 2023; 16: 1514.

[23] Khalilak Z, Esnaashari E, Saati K, Bineshmarvasti D, Yousefshahi H, Nobakht M. An in vitro comparison of coronal discolouration caused by white mineral trioxide aggregate, theracal, calcium-enriched mixture and biodentine. European Endodontic Journal. 2022; 7: 47–51.

[24] Wierichs RJ, Lausch J, Meyer-Lueckel H, Esteves-Oliveira M. Re- and demineralization characteristics of enamel depending on baseline mineral loss and lesion depth in situ. Caries Research. 2016; 50: 141–150.

[25] El Meligy OAES, Alamoudi NM, Eldin Ibrahim ST, Felemban OM, Al-Tuwirqi AA. Effect of resin infiltration application on early proximal caries lesions in vitro. Journal of Dental Sciences. 2021; 16: 296–303.

[26] Alagha E, Alagha MI. Comparing impact of two resin infiltration systems on microhardness of demineralized human enamel after exposure to acidic challenge. Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2021; 9: 92–97.

[27] Theodory TG, Kolker JL, Vargas MA, Maia RR, Dawson DV. Masking and penetration ability of various sealants and ICON in artificial initial caries lesions in vitro. The Journal of Adhesive Dentistry. 2019; 21: 265–272.

[28] Bourouni S, Dritsas K, Kloukos D, Wierichs RJ. Efficacy of resin infiltration to mask post-orthodontic or non-post-orthodontic white spot lesions or fluorosis—a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Oral Investigations. 2021; 25: 4711–4719.

[29] Meyer-Lueckel H, Paris S. Progression of artificial enamel caries lesions after infiltration with experimental light curing resins. Caries Research. 2008; 42: 117–124.

[30] Cochrane NJ, Anderson P, Davis GR, Adams GG, Stacey MA, Reynolds EC. An x-ray microtomographic study of natural white-spot enamel lesions. Journal of Dental Research. 2012; 91: 185–191.

[31] Ando M, Fontana M, Eckert GJ, Arthur RA, Zhang H, Zero DT. Objective and quantitative assessment of caries lesion activity. Journal of Dentistry. 2018; 78: 76–82.

[32] Gu X, Yang L, Yang D, Gao Y, Duan X, Zhu X, et al. Esthetic improvements of postorthodontic white-spot lesions treated with resin infiltration and microabrasion: a split-mouth, randomized clinical trial. The Angle Orthodontist. 2019; 89: 372–377.

[33] Tiuraniemi S, Yli‐Mannila J, Havela P, Käkilehto T, Vähänikkilä H, Laitala M, et al. Success of resin infiltration treatment on interproximal tooth surfaces in young adults—a practice-based follow-up study. Clinical and Experimental Dental Research. 2021; 7: 189–195.

[34] Alrebdi AB, Alyahya Y. Microabrasion plus resin infiltration in masking white spot lesions. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences. 2022; 26: 456–461.

[35] Almansouri N, Bakry AS, Abbassy MA, Linjawi AI, Hassan AH. Evaluation of resin infiltration, fluoride and the biomimetic mineralization of CPP-ACP in protecting enamel after orthodontic inter-proximal enamel reduction. Biomimetics. 2023; 8: 82.

[36] Kobbe C, Fritz U, Wierichs RJ, Meyer-Lueckel H. Evaluation of the value of re-wetting prior to resin infiltration of post-orthodontic caries lesions. Journal of Dentistry. 2019; 91: 103243.

[37] Baptista-Sanchez H, Antonio-Zancajo L, Albaladejo-Martinez A, Colino Gallardo P, Garcovich D, Alvarado-Lorenzo M, et al. Changes in the color and brightness of white spots associated with orthodontic treatment 6 months after the application of infiltrative resins: systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19: 9277.

[38] Askar H, Schwendicke F, Lausch J, Meyer-Lueckel H, Paris S. Modified resin infiltration of non-, micro- and cavitated proximal caries lesions in vitro. Journal of Dentistry. 2018; 74: 56–60.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,500 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

PubMed (MEDLINE) PubMed comprises more than 35 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

Biological Abstracts Easily discover critical journal coverage of the life sciences with Biological Abstracts, produced by the Web of Science Group, with topics ranging from botany to microbiology to pharmacology. Including BIOSIS indexing and MeSH terms, specialized indexing in Biological Abstracts helps you to discover more accurate, context-sensitive results.

Google Scholar Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines.

JournalSeek Genamics JournalSeek is the largest completely categorized database of freely available journal information available on the internet. The database presently contains 39226 titles. Journal information includes the description (aims and scope), journal abbreviation, journal homepage link, subject category and ISSN.

Current Contents - Clinical Medicine Current Contents - Clinical Medicine provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in clinical medicine.

BIOSIS Previews BIOSIS Previews is an English-language, bibliographic database service, with abstracts and citation indexing. It is part of Clarivate Analytics Web of Science suite. BIOSIS Previews indexes data from 1926 to the present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Scopus: CiteScore 2.0 (2022) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Submission Turnaround Time