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Original Research

Open Access

The effect of freezing on the fracture pattern of adhesive on debonding: an in-vitro study

  • Nadija Murati1
  • Iosif Sifakakis2
  • Theodore Eliades1,*,

1Clinic of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, Center for Dental Medicine, University of Zurich, 8032 Zurich, Switzerland

2Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 115 27 Athens, Greece

DOI: 10.22514/jocpd.2024.056 Vol.48,Issue 3,May 2024 pp.31-36

Submitted: 06 December 2023 Accepted: 23 January 2024

Published: 03 May 2024

*Corresponding Author(s): Theodore Eliades E-mail:


The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate adhesive remnants on the enamel surface following bracket debonding using a freezing element. Thirty-six sound premolars were used in this study. In each case, a bracket was bonded onto each tooth with conventional light-cured composite resin and de-bonded after one week. Freezing of the underlying composite through the bracket was performed immediately before debonding with a portable cryosurgical system (−55 C). Specimens were divided into three groups according to the duration of freezing: a control group without freezing was used as a reference and two interventional groups with different durations of freezing (15 or 40 s). Brackets were removed by using debonding pliers to squeeze the wings of the bracket in an occluso-gingival manner. Adhesive remnants on the tooth were then quantitatively evaluated by stereo-microscopy. Pearson’s Chi-squared test was used to investigate the relationship between the proportion of remaining resin and the group of teeth. In the control group, 100% of the composite remained on the enamel surface of all specimens. Significantly less adhesive remnants were found in the intervention groups (p = 0.001 for the 15 s group and p = 0.043 for the 40 s group). There was no significant difference between the two interventions (p = 0.165) in terms of the proportion of remaining adhesive remnants. Freezing of the bracket and the underlying adhesive resin prior to bracket debonding may favorably alter the behavioral pattern of composite fracture, thus reducing the extent of adhesive remnants on the enamel. Increasing the freezing time from 15 to 40 s did not exert significant effects on adhesive remnants following debonding. Further research now needs to investigate the effect of freezing on the mechanical properties of the adhesive remnants and its in-vivo effect on pulp vitality over both short- and long-terms.


Adhesive remnants; Debonding; Freezing

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Nadija Murati,Iosif Sifakakis,Theodore Eliades. The effect of freezing on the fracture pattern of adhesive on debonding: an in-vitro study. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2024. 48(3);31-36.


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