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Original Research

Open Access

Comparison of three-dimensional printed resin crowns and preformed stainless steel crowns for primary molar restorations: a randomized controlled trial

  • Ko Eun Lee1,2,†
  • Hyun Seok Kang1,†
  • Seo Young Shin3
  • Taeyang Lee2
  • Hyo-Seol Lee3,4,*,
  • Je Seon Song1,2,*,

1Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Yonsei University Dental Hospital, 03722 Seoul, Republic of Korea

2Department of Pediatric Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 03722 Seoul, Republic of Korea

3Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Kyung Hee University College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, 03722 Seoul, Republic of Korea

4Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, 03722 Seoul, Republic of Korea

DOI: 10.22514/jocpd.2024.060 Vol.48,Issue 3,May 2024 pp.59-67

Submitted: 16 October 2023 Accepted: 07 December 2023

Published: 03 May 2024

*Corresponding Author(s): Hyo-Seol Lee E-mail:
*Corresponding Author(s): Je Seon Song E-mail:

† These authors contributed equally.


The importance of aesthetics in children has increased over time. Therefore, this multicenter randomized clinical trial aimed to analyze and compare three-dimensional (3D)-printed resin crowns (RCs) as a potential alternative to stainless-steel crowns (SSCs) for restoring primary molars with extensive carious lesions. According to the null hypothesis, no statistically significant difference was observed in restoration failure between RC and SSC groups. A total of 56 primary molars after pulp treatment at two dental hospitals were included. After pulp treatment, the teeth were randomly divided into two groups: SSCs (n = 28) and RCs (n = 28). At 1 week and 3, 6 and 12 months, the Quigley-Hein plaque index (QHI), gingival index (GI), occlusal wear, and survival rate were assessed by examination, radiography and alginate impressions. No significant difference in QHI was observed between the two groups. However, the GI at 12 months and occlusal wear in the RC group were significantly higher than those in the SSC group (p < 0.05). The survival rates were 100% in the SSC group and 82.1% in the RC group (p = 0.047). Cracks and discoloration were also observed in the RCs. Within the limitations of this study, 3D-printed RCs are aesthetically superior to SSCs and clinically easy to repair. However, if clinical effectiveness and safety are improved, RCs could potentially become a viable aesthetic alternative in the future.


3D-printed resin crown; Stainless steel crown; Quigley-Hein plaque index; Gingival index; Occlusal wear; Survival rate; Primary molar

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Ko Eun Lee,Hyun Seok Kang,Seo Young Shin,Taeyang Lee,Hyo-Seol Lee,Je Seon Song. Comparison of three-dimensional printed resin crowns and preformed stainless steel crowns for primary molar restorations: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2024. 48(3);59-67.


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