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Original Research

Open Access

Effects of different irrigation activation methods on root canal treatment of primary teeth

  • Merve Avcı1
  • Ülkü Şermet Elbay1,*,
  • Sena Kaşıkçı2

1Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Kocaeli University, 41190 Kocaeli, Turkey

2Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Kocaeli University, 41190 Kocaeli, Turkey

DOI: 10.22514/jocpd.2024.069 Vol.48,Issue 3,May 2024 pp.156-165

Submitted: 15 September 2023 Accepted: 07 October 2023

Published: 03 May 2024

*Corresponding Author(s): Ülkü Şermet Elbay E-mail:


There is currently a lack of research on the application of newly developed irrigation techniques in root canal treatment of primary teeth. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of various irrigation activation techniques on two key parameters: apical debris extrusion (ADE) and dentinal tubule penetration depth (DTPD) of the root canal filling material. A total of 96 primary mandibular second molars were randomly divided into 4 groups: Group 1—Conventional Needle Irrigation (CNI), Group 2—XP-Endo Finisher (XPF), Group 3—EndoActivator (EA), and Group 4—Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation (PUI). In all groups, the One Reci single-file system was used for root canal preparation. For ADE measurement, each group was rinsed with distilled water. For DTPD assessment, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) was applied. ADE quantification was performed by collecting debris in pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes. A combination of fluorescent dye and root canal filling material (DiaPex Plus) was used for root canal filling. In order to examine DTPD, horizontal cross-sections of the coronal and apical regions of the teeth were taken with a thickness of 1 mm. The maximum and mean DTPD was examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis, One-way ANOVA, and Mann-Whitney U tests (p = 0.05). As a result, PUI had the highest mean ADE and CNI had the lowest mean ADE, while CNI had the highest mean DTPD in both the coronal and apical regions, whereas PUI had the lowest mean DTPD in the coronal region, and EA had the lowest mean DTPD in the apical region. There were no statistically significant differences in DTPD and ADE among the four groups. Comparing intragroup maximum DTPD across all groups, it was significantly higher in the coronal region than in the apical region (p < 0.05). ADE and DTPD of root canal filling materials in primary teeth did not differ significantly among CNI, XPF, EA and PUI irrigation activation techniques.


Root canal treatment; Irrigation; Activation; Primary tooth

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Merve Avcı,Ülkü Şermet Elbay,Sena Kaşıkçı. Effects of different irrigation activation methods on root canal treatment of primary teeth. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2024. 48(3);156-165.


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