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Original Research

Open Access

Secular changes in dental development of Korean children aged 4 to 16 years over a 10-year period

  • Seung-Hwan Ong1
  • Insoon Chang2
  • Hyuntae Kim1
  • Ji-Soo Song1
  • Teo Jeon Shin1
  • Hong-Keun Hyun1
  • Ki-Taeg Jang1
  • Young-Jae Kim1,*,

1Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, 03080 Seoul, Republic of Korea

2Section of Endodontics, Division of Regenerative and Reconstructive Science, School of Dentistry, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA

DOI: 10.22514/jocpd.2024.080 Vol.48,Issue 4,July 2024 pp.68-73

Submitted: 12 December 2023 Accepted: 08 March 2024

Published: 03 July 2024

*Corresponding Author(s): Young-Jae Kim E-mail:


This study evaluated 10-year secular changes in dental maturity and dental development among Korean children. A retrospective analysis of panoramic radiograph samples from Korean children (4–16 years old) taken in 2010 and 2020 was conducted. The 2010 group consisted of 3491 radiographs (1970 boys and 1521 girls), and the 2020 group included 5133 radiographs (2825 boys and 2308 girls). Using Demirjian’s method, dental maturity scores and dental developmental stages were assessed. For intra-observer reliability, Weighted Cohen’s kappa was used, and Mann-Whitney U tests were performed to compare the 2020 and 2010 groups. A slight acceleration in dental maturity was observed in both boys and girls, with the difference being more noticeable in boys at an earlier age. Statistically significant differences were noted at ages 4, 5 and 7 for boys, and at age 6 for girls. Despite these differences, the individual dental development stages of 2020 and 2010 showed inconsistent trends with limited differences. Generally, girls demonstrate more advanced dental maturity than boys. A slight acceleration in Korean children’s dental maturity was observed over a 10-year period when comparing the 2020 groups to the 2010 groups.


Dental maturity; Dental development; Forensic odontology; Secular change

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Seung-Hwan Ong,Insoon Chang,Hyuntae Kim,Ji-Soo Song,Teo Jeon Shin,Hong-Keun Hyun,Ki-Taeg Jang,Young-Jae Kim. Secular changes in dental development of Korean children aged 4 to 16 years over a 10-year period. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2024. 48(4);68-73.


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