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Original Research

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Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of a self-administered Urdu version of the child oral impacts on daily performances index among 11–12-year old children in Lahore, Pakistan

  • Khaliqa tul Zahra1,2
  • Jamaludin Marhazlinda1,3
  • Zamros Yuzadi Mohd Yusof1,3,*,

1Department of Community Oral Health & Clinical Prevention, Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

2de’Montmorency institute of Dentistry, Walled City of Lahore, 54000 Lahore, Pakistan

3Community Oral Health Research Group, Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

DOI: 10.22514/jocpd.2024.081 Vol.48,Issue 4,July 2024 pp.74-85

Submitted: 21 December 2023 Accepted: 20 March 2024

Published: 03 July 2024

*Corresponding Author(s): Zamros Yuzadi Mohd Yusof E-mail:


The Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP) index was developed to assess children’s oral health-related quality of life. This study aimed to culturally adapt the self-administered Child-OIDP index into Urdu, evaluate its psychometric properties, and provide an initial estimate of oral impacts among 11–12-year-old children in Lahore, Pakistan. The translation of the Child-OIDP index from English to Urdu was performed, and the content and face validity of the initial Urdu version were evaluated by experts and 11–12-year-old children, respectively. The psychometric properties of the Urdu Child-OIDP were assessed by administering the index to 264 children aged 11–12 from five schools in the Lahore district. Psychometric properties were evaluated using criterion and construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and global self-rated oral items, followed by an oral examination. The standardized Cronbach’s alpha was 0.77, and the weighted Kappa was 0.94 (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.98). The index exhibited significant associations with subjective outcome measures, dental problem history, and dental caries status (p = 0.001). Children reporting poor oral health, lower satisfaction with oral health, and experiencing oral impacts demonstrated higher Child-OIDP scores. Additionally, children with dental caries and perceived treatment needs exhibited higher Child-OIDP scores, indicating poorer Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL). The prevalence of oral impacts was 88.3% (mean score = 17.8, standard deviation (SD) =14.7). Eating performance was the most affected while speaking was the performance least affected, while toothache and sensitive teeth were identified as the two most common causes of oral impacts. Toothache was the primary cause of condition-specific impacts, responsible for the majority of oral impacts. This study demonstrates that the self-administered Urdu Child-OIDP index is a valid and reliable tool for assessing OHRQoL among 11–12-year-old children in Lahore, Pakistan.


Child-OIDP; Children; Oral health-related quality of life; Oral impact; Psychometric; Urdu; Validation

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Khaliqa tul Zahra,Jamaludin Marhazlinda,Zamros Yuzadi Mohd Yusof. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of a self-administered Urdu version of the child oral impacts on daily performances index among 11–12-year old children in Lahore, Pakistan. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2024. 48(4);74-85.


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