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Original Research

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Comparison of the physical properties of glass ionomer modified with silver phosphate/hydroxyapatite or titanium dioxide nanoparticles: in vitro study

  • Berenice Pérez-Castro1,†
  • Abigailt Flores-Ledesma1,†
  • Efraín Rubio-Rosas2
  • Bernardo Teutle-Coyotecatl1
  • Blanca Irma Flores-Ferreyra1,3
  • Liliana Argueta-Figueroa4
  • María de los Angeles Moyaho-Bernal1,*,

1Faculty of Stomatology, Meritorious Autonomous University of Puebla, 72410 Puebla, PUE, Mexico

2Innovation and Knowledge Transfer Directorate (DITCo), Meritorious Autonomous University of Puebla, 72570 Puebla, PUE, Mexico

3School of Dentistry, Autonomous University of Mexico State, 50130 Toluca, MEX, Mexico

4CONAHCYT—National Technological Institute of Mexico/Toluca Technological Institute, 52149 Metepec, MEX, Mexico

DOI: 10.22514/jocpd.2024.089 Vol.48,Issue 4,July 2024 pp.160-167

Submitted: 01 November 2023 Accepted: 11 January 2024

Published: 03 July 2024

*Corresponding Author(s): María de los Angeles Moyaho-Bernal E-mail:

† These authors contributed equally.


Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are the common materials employed in pediatric dentistry because of their specific applications in class I restorations and atraumatic restoration treatments (ART) of deciduous teeth in populations at high risk of caries. Studies show a limited clinical durability of these materials. Attempts have thus been made to incorporate nanoparticles (NPs) into the glass ionomer for improving resistance and make it like the tooth structure. An in vitro experimental study was conducted using the required samples dimensions and prepared based on the test being carried out on the three groups with or without the modification of light-cured glass ionomer. Samples were grouped as follows: control group (G1_C), 2% silver phosphate/hydroxyapatite NPs group (G2_SPH), and 2% titanium dioxide NPs group (G3_TiO2). The physical tests regarding flexural strength (n = 10 per group), solubility (n = 10 per group), and radiopacity (n = 3 per group) were performed. The data were analyzed by Shapiro Wilks test, and one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA), and multiple comparisons by post hoc Tukey’s test. The p-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. No statistically significant difference was observed between the control group (G1_C) and (G2_SPH) (p = 0.704) in the flexural strength test, however differences were found between G2_SPH and G3_TiO2 groups, ANOVA (p = 0.006); post hoc Tukey’s test (p = 0.014). Pertaining to the solubility, G2_SPH obtained the lowest among the three groups, ANOVA (p = 0.010); post hoc Tukey’s test (p = 0.009). The three study groups obtained an adequate radiopacity of >1 mm Al, respectively. The resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) was further modified with 2% silver phosphate/hydroxyapatite NPs to improve the physical properties such as enhancing the solubility and sorption without compromising the flexural strength and radiopacity behavior of modified RMGIC. The incorporation of 2% titanium dioxide NPs did not improve the properties studied.


Glass ionomer; Nanoparticles; Silver phosphate; Hydroxyapatite; Titanium dioxide; Physical properties

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Berenice Pérez-Castro,Abigailt Flores-Ledesma,Efraín Rubio-Rosas,Bernardo Teutle-Coyotecatl,Blanca Irma Flores-Ferreyra,Liliana Argueta-Figueroa,María de los Angeles Moyaho-Bernal. Comparison of the physical properties of glass ionomer modified with silver phosphate/hydroxyapatite or titanium dioxide nanoparticles: in vitro study. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2024. 48(4);160-167.


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