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Original Research

Open Access

Black stain and dental caries in primary dentition of preschool children in Qingdao, China

  • Chuanyue Qiao1,2,†
  • Rui Han1,2,†
  • Jing Yang1,2
  • Hao Huang1,2
  • Lei Ma1,2,*,

1Department of Prosthodontics, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, 266003 Qingdao, Shandong, China

2School of Stomatology, Qingdao University, 266023 Qingdao, Shandong, China

DOI: 10.22514/jocpd.2024.094 Vol.48,Issue 4,July 2024 pp.200-205

Submitted: 25 September 2023 Accepted: 23 January 2024

Published: 03 July 2024

*Corresponding Author(s): Lei Ma E-mail:

† These authors contributed equally.


Black stain (BS) and caries are common oral issues in children worldwide. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence of BS and caries in primary dentition of children in Qingdao, China and evaluate the potential association between them. A total of 672 preschool children aged 3–5 years old from 12 kindergartens in Qingdao, northern China were enrolled in the study. The prevalences of BS and caries were counted, and their distributions across different ages and genders were analyzed. The potential protective role of BS (independent variable) on caries (dependent variable) was analyzed via binary logistic regression analysis. BS was observed in 103 children (15.33%), including 3 severe- (0.45%), 28 moderate- (4.17%), and 72 mild (10.71%) forms. Caries was observed in 374 children (55.65%) and it was positively associated with age. Notably, the prevalence of caries was lower in children with BS than in those without BS (42.72%vs. 58.00%, respectively). Children with BS were less likely to suffer from caries than those without BS. BS in mild or moderate/severe forms was associated with a low risk of caries. In summary, the prevalence of BS in primary dentition in Qingdao, China is at a relatively high level worldwide. BS is a protective factor for caries in primary dentition.


Black stain; Dental caries; Primary dentition; Preschool children

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Chuanyue Qiao,Rui Han,Jing Yang,Hao Huang,Lei Ma. Black stain and dental caries in primary dentition of preschool children in Qingdao, China. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2024. 48(4);200-205.


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