Article Data

  • Views 344
  • Dowloads 137

Original Research

Open Access

Black stain and dental caries in primary dentition of preschool children in Qingdao, China

  • Chuanyue Qiao1,2,†
  • Rui Han1,2,†
  • Jing Yang1,2
  • Hao Huang1,2
  • Lei Ma1,2,*,

1Department of Prosthodontics, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, 266003 Qingdao, Shandong, China

2School of Stomatology, Qingdao University, 266023 Qingdao, Shandong, China

DOI: 10.22514/jocpd.2024.094 Vol.48,Issue 4,July 2024 pp.200-205

Submitted: 25 September 2023 Accepted: 23 January 2024

Published: 03 July 2024

*Corresponding Author(s): Lei Ma E-mail: leima@qdu.edu.cn

† These authors contributed equally.

Abstract

Black stain (BS) and caries are common oral issues in children worldwide. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence of BS and caries in primary dentition of children in Qingdao, China and evaluate the potential association between them. A total of 672 preschool children aged 3–5 years old from 12 kindergartens in Qingdao, northern China were enrolled in the study. The prevalences of BS and caries were counted, and their distributions across different ages and genders were analyzed. The potential protective role of BS (independent variable) on caries (dependent variable) was analyzed via binary logistic regression analysis. BS was observed in 103 children (15.33%), including 3 severe- (0.45%), 28 moderate- (4.17%), and 72 mild (10.71%) forms. Caries was observed in 374 children (55.65%) and it was positively associated with age. Notably, the prevalence of caries was lower in children with BS than in those without BS (42.72%vs. 58.00%, respectively). Children with BS were less likely to suffer from caries than those without BS. BS in mild or moderate/severe forms was associated with a low risk of caries. In summary, the prevalence of BS in primary dentition in Qingdao, China is at a relatively high level worldwide. BS is a protective factor for caries in primary dentition.


Keywords

Black stain; Dental caries; Primary dentition; Preschool children


Cite and Share

Chuanyue Qiao,Rui Han,Jing Yang,Hao Huang,Lei Ma. Black stain and dental caries in primary dentition of preschool children in Qingdao, China. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2024. 48(4);200-205.

References

[1] Janjua U, Bahia G, Barry S. Black staining: an overview for the general dental practitioner. British Dental Journal. 2022; 232: 857–860.

[2] Alazmah A. Primary teeth stains and discoloration: a review. Journal of Child Science. 2021; 11: e20–e27.

[3] Carelli M, Zatochna I, Sandri A, Burlacchini G, Rosa A, Baccini F, et al. Effect of a fluoride toothpaste containing enzymes and salivary proteins on periodontal pathogens in subjects with black stain: a pilot study. European Journal of Dentistry. 2024; 18: 109–116.

[4] Garcia Martin JM, Gonzalez Garcia M, Seoane Leston J, Llorente Pendas S, Diaz Martin JJ, Garcia-Pola MJ. Prevalence of black stain and associated risk factors in preschool Spanish children. Pediatrics International. 2013; 55: 355–359.

[5] Ortiz-López CS, Veses V, Garcia-Bautista JA, Jovani-Sancho MDM. Risk factors for the presence of dental black plaque. Scientific Reports. 2018; 8: 16752.

[6] Mousa HRF, Radwan MZ, Wassif GOM, Wassel MO. The association between black stain and lower risk of dental caries in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association. 2022; 97: 13.

[7] Chen X, Zhan J, Lu H, Ye W, Zhang W, Yang W, et al. Factors associated with black tooth stain in Chinese preschool children. Clinical Oral Investigations. 2014; 18: 2059–2066.

[8] Zheng L, Cao T, Xiong P, Ma Y, Wei L, Wang J. Characterization of the oral microbiome and gut microbiome of dental caries and extrinsic black stain in preschool children. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2023; 14: 1081629.

[9] Gao W, Han R, Ma L, Wang JY, Kong FZ, Liu J. Analysis of dental caries and related factors in preschool children in Qingdao in 2018. Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2019; 53: 611–613. (In Chinese)

[10] Ji SQ, Han R, Lin H, Huang PP, Ji CL, Hu XW, et al. Prevalence and influencing factors of deciduous dental caries among preschool children in Qingdao city in 2019. Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2021; 55: 1129–1132. (In Chinese)

[11] Xu Y, Guan J, Wang Q, Xue R, He Z, Lu X, et al. Mussel-inspired caries management strategy: constructing a tribioactive tooth surface with remineralization, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammation activity. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2023; 15: 15946–15964.

[12] He Y, Vasilev K, Zilm P. pH-responsive biomaterials for the treatment of dental caries—a focussed and critical review. Pharmaceutics. 2023; 15: 1837.

[13] Kale S, Kakodkar P, Shetiya S, Abdulkader R. Prevalence of dental caries among children aged 5–15 years from 9 countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: a meta-analysis. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2020; 26: 726–735.

[14] Hu J, Jiang W, Lin X, Zhu H, Zhou N, Chen Y, et al. Dental caries status and caries risk factors in students ages 12–14 years in Zhejiang, China. Medical Science Monitor. 2018; 24: 3670–3678.

[15] Li J, Zhang K, Lu Z. Prevalence and factors contributing to dental caries in 12–15-year-old school adolescents in northeast China. BMJ Open. 2021; 11: e044758.

[16] Giacaman RA, Fernández CE, Muñoz-Sandoval C, León S, García-Manríquez N, Echeverría C, et al. Understanding dental caries as a non-communicable and behavioral disease: management implications. Frontiers in Oral Health. 2022; 3: 764479.

[17] Anil S, Anand PS. Early childhood caries: prevalence, risk factors, and prevention. Frontiers in Pediatrics. 20217; 5: 157.

[18] Saba C, Solidani M, Berlutti F, Vestri A, Ottolenghi L, Polimeni A. Black stains in the mixed dentition: a PCR microbiological study of the etiopathogenic bacteria. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2006; 30: 219–224.

[19] Zhang Y, Yu R, Zhan JY, Cao GZ, Feng XP, Chen X. Epidemiological and microbiome characterization of black tooth stain in preschool children. Frontiers in Pediatrics. 2022; 10: 751361.

[20] Muthu MS, Saikia A, Henry JA, Balamurugan A. Surface-specific correlation between extrinsic stains and early childhood caries. Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry. 2019; 17: 277–282.

[21] Koch MJ, Bove M, Schroff J, Perlea P, García-Godoy F, Staehle HJ. Black stain and dental caries in schoolchildren in Potenza, Italy. ASDC Journal of Dentistry for Children. 2001; 68: 353–355, 302.

[22] Gasparetto A, Conrado CA, Maciel SM, Miyamoto EY, Chicarelli M, Zanata RL. Prevalence of black tooth stains and dental caries in Brazilian schoolchildren. Brazilian Dental Journal. 2003; 14: 157–161.

[23] Boka V, Trikaliotis A, Kotsanos N, Karagiannis V. Dental caries and oral health-related factors in a sample of Greek preschool children. European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry. 2013; 14: 363–368.

[24] Elelmi Y, Mabrouk R, Masmoudi F, Baaziz A, Maatouk F, Ghedira H. Black stain and dental caries in primary teeth of Tunisian preschool children. European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry. 2021; 22: 235–240.

[25] Akyuz S, Garan A, Kaya M. Prevalence of black stain and dental caries in children attending a university pediatric dentistry clinic in Istanbul. Journal of Marmara University Institute of Health Sciences. 2015; 5: 109–114

[26] Miao F, Ma HR, Liu ZH. Research on the pathogeny of black tooth stain and association between black tooth stain and primary dentition caries in children. Shanghai Journal of Stomatology. 2022; 31: 282–285.

[27] Żyła T, Kawala B, Antoszewska-Smith J, Kawala M. Black stain and dental caries: a review of the literature. BioMed Research International. 2015; 2015: 469392.

[28] Prskalo K, Klarić Sever E, Alerić I, Antonić Jelić T, Žaja I. Risk factors associated with black tooth stain. Acta Clinica Croatica. 2017; 56: 28–35.

[29] Martignon S, Roncalli AG, Alvarez E, Aránguiz V, Feldens CA, Buzalaf MAR. Risk factors for dental caries in Latin American and Caribbean countries. Brazilian Oral Research. 2021; 35: e053.

[30] Fernández CN, Borjas MI, Cambría-Ronda SD, Zavala W. Prevalence and severity of early childhood caries in malnourished children in Mendoza, Argentina. Acta Odontologica Latinoamericana. 2020; 33: 209–215.

[31] Mei L, Shi H, Wei Z, Li Q, Wang X. Risk factors associated with early childhood caries among Wenzhou preschool children in China: a prospective, observational cohort study. BMJ Open. 2021; 11: e046816.


Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,500 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Biological Abstracts Easily discover critical journal coverage of the life sciences with Biological Abstracts, produced by the Web of Science Group, with topics ranging from botany to microbiology to pharmacology. Including BIOSIS indexing and MeSH terms, specialized indexing in Biological Abstracts helps you to discover more accurate, context-sensitive results.

Google Scholar Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines.

JournalSeek Genamics JournalSeek is the largest completely categorized database of freely available journal information available on the internet. The database presently contains 39226 titles. Journal information includes the description (aims and scope), journal abbreviation, journal homepage link, subject category and ISSN.

Current Contents - Clinical Medicine Current Contents - Clinical Medicine provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in clinical medicine.

BIOSIS Previews BIOSIS Previews is an English-language, bibliographic database service, with abstracts and citation indexing. It is part of Clarivate Analytics Web of Science suite. BIOSIS Previews indexes data from 1926 to the present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Scopus: CiteScore 1.8 (2023) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Submission Turnaround Time

Conferences

Top