Article Data

  • Views 695
  • Dowloads 214

Original Research

Open Access

Examination of surface porosity of current pulp capping materials by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) method

  • Burak Dayı1,*,
  • Muhammet Yalçın1

1Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Inonu University, 44280 Malatya, Turkey

DOI: 10.22514/jocpd.2024.038 Vol.48,Issue 2,March 2024 pp.93-101

Submitted: 06 April 2023 Accepted: 13 July 2023

Published: 03 March 2024

*Corresponding Author(s): Burak Dayı E-mail: bdayi70@hotmail.com

Abstract

When dental pulp is exposed, it must be covered with a biocompatible material to form reparative dentine. The material used, besides being biocompatible, should have an ideal surface structure for the attachment, proliferation and differentiation of dental pulp stem cells. This study aimed to evaluate the porosity of the microstructures of four pulp capping materials using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Biodentine, Bioaggregate, TheraCal and Dycal materials were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions using 2 × 9 mm Teflon molds. A total of 60 samples, 15 in each group, were scanned using micro-CT. Open and closed pores and the total porosity of the microstructures of the materials were assessed. The findings obtained from the study were analyzed via the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Mann-Whitney U test. The porosity of Bioaggregate was significantly higher than that of Biodentine, Dycal and TheraCal in all porosity values. While Biodentine did not show a statistically significant difference in open and total porosity values from either TheraCal or Dycal, closed porosity values of Dycal were significantly higher than those of Biodentine and TheraCal. Because of the affinity of cells to porous surfaces, the pulp capping materials’ microstructure may affect the pulp capping treatment’s success. From this perspective, the use of Bioaggregate in direct pulp capping may increase the success of treatment.


Keywords

Calcium hydroxide cement; Calcium silicate cements; Micro-CT; Porosity


Cite and Share

Burak Dayı,Muhammet Yalçın. Examination of surface porosity of current pulp capping materials by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) method. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2024. 48(2);93-101.

References

[1] Coll JA. Primary and permanent teeth treated with direct pulp capping. In Fuks AB, Moskovitz M, Tickotsky N (eds.) Contemporary Endodontics for Children and Adolescents (pp. 187–200). 1st Edition. Springer: Cham. 2023.

[2] Andersson L. Epidemiology of traumatic dental injuries. Journal of Endodontics. 2013; 39: S2–S5.

[3] Bogen G, Dammaschke T, Chandler N. Vital pulp therapy. In Berman LH, Hargreaves KM (ed.) Cohen’s pathways of the pulp (pp. 902–938). 12th edn. Elsevier Health Sciences: Canada. 2020.

[4] Chatzidimitriou K, Vadiakas G, Koletsi D. Direct pulp capping in asymptomatic carious primary molars using three different pulp capping materials: a prospective clinical trial. European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry. 2022; 23: 803–811.

[5] Topçuoğlu G, Aydınbelge M. The evaluation of diagnosis and treatment approaches of a group of Turkish pedodontists. Selcuk Dental Journal. 2021; 8: 591–599. (In Turkish)

[6] American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Pulp therapy for primary and immature permanent teeth. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry: Chicago. 2022.

[7] Dhar V, Marghalani AA, Crystal YO, Kumar A, Ritwik P, Tulunoglu O, et al. Use of vital pulp therapies in primary teeth with deep caries lesions. Pediatric Dentistry. 2017; 39: 146–159.

[8] Wang S, Hu Q, Gao X, Dong Y. Characteristics and effects on dental pulp cells of a polycaprolactone/submicron bioactive glass composite scaffold. Journal of Endodontics. 2016; 42: 1070–1075.

[9] Bordini EAF, Cassiano FB, Silva ISP, Usberti FR, Anovazzi G, Pacheco LE, et al. Synergistic potential of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and calcium-aluminate-chitosan scaffolds with dental pulp cells. Clinical Oral Investigations. 2020; 24: 663–674.

[10] Camilleri J, Pitt Ford TR. Mineral trioxide aggregate: a review of the constituents and biological properties of the material. International Endodontic Journal. 2006; 39: 747–754.

[11] Cushley S, Duncan HF, Lappin MJ, Chua P, Elamin AD, Clarke M, et al. Efficacy of direct pulp capping for management of cariously exposed pulps in permanent teeth: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. International Endodontic Journal. 2021; 54: 556–571.

[12] Grewal N, Salhan R, Kaur N, Patel HB. Comparative evaluation of calcium silicate-based dentin substitute (Biodentine®) and calcium hydroxide (pulpdent) in the formation of reactive dentin bridge in regenerative pulpotomy of vital primary teeth: triple blind, randomized clinical trial. Contemporary Clinical Dentistry. 2016; 7: 457–463.

[13] Mohammadi Z, Dummer PM. Properties and applications of calcium hydroxide in endodontics and dental traumatology. International Endodontic Journal. 2011; 44: 697–730.

[14] Cox CF, Sübay RK, Ostro E, Suzuki S, Suzuki SH. Tunnel defects in dentin bridges: their formation following direct pulp capping. Operative Dentistry. 1996; 21: 4–11.

[15] Guven EP, Yalvac ME, Sahin F, Yazici MM, Rizvanov AA, Bayirli G. Effect of dental materials calcium hydroxide-containing cement, mineral trioxide aggregate, and enamel matrix derivative on proliferation and differentiation of human tooth germ stem cells. Journal of Endodontics. 2011; 37: 650–656.

[16] Arandi NZ, Thabet M. Minimal intervention in dentistry: a literature review on Biodentine as a bioactive pulp capping material. BioMed Research International. 2021; 2021: 5569313.

[17] Tripathi R, Cohen S, Khanduri N. Coronal tooth discoloration after the use of white mineral trioxide aggregate. Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry. 2020; 12: 409–414.

[18] Hu X, Li Y, Xu J, Li Q, Wang R. Immature permanent incisors with complicated crown fractures treated with partial pulpotomy using white mineral trioxide aggregate and IRoot BP plus-a retrospective long-term study. Dental Traumatology. 2023; 39: 165–172.

[19] Madfa AA, Al-Sanabani FA, Al-Kudami NHAQ. Endodontic repair filling materials: a review article. British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research. 2014; 4: 3059–3079.

[20] Active Biosilicate TechnologyTM. BiodentineTM Scientific file. 2012. Available at: https://www.septodont.in/sites/in/files/2016-12/Case%20Studies%2001%20BD_2.pdf (Accessed: 19 June 2023)

[21] Zhu L, Yang J, Zhang J, Peng B. A comparative study of BioAggregate and ProRoot MTA on adhesion, migration, and attachment of human dental pulp cells. Journal of Endodontics. 2014; 40: 1118–1123.

[22] Leal F, De-Deus G, Brandão C, Luna AS, Fidel SR, Souza EM. Comparison of the root-end seal provided by bioceramic repair cements and white MTA. International Endodontic Journal. 2011; 44: 662–668.

[23] Kunert M, Lukomska-Szymanska M. Bio-inductive materials in direct and indirect pulp capping-a review article. Materials. 2020; 13: 1204.

[24] Qu T, Liu X. Nano-structured gelatin/bioactive glass hybrid scaffolds for the enhancement of odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells. Journal of Materials Chemistry B. 2013; 1: 4764–4772.

[25] Leite ML, Anselmi C, Soares IPM, Manso AP, Hebling J, Carvalho RM, et al. Calcium silicate-coated porous chitosan scaffold as a cell-free tissue engineering system for direct pulp capping. Dental Materials. 2022; 38: 1763–1776.

[26] Mendes Soares IP, Anselmi C, Kitagawa FA, Ribeiro RAO, Leite ML, de Souza Costa CA, et al. Nano-hydroxyapatite-incorporated polycaprolactone nanofibrous scaffold as a dentin tissue engineering-based strategy for vital pulp therapy. Dental Materials. 2022; 38: 960–977.

[27] Dayi B, Sezlev Bilecen D, Eröksüz H, Yalçın M, Hasırcı V. Evaluation of a collagen-bioaggregate composite scaffold in the repair of sheep pulp tissue. European Oral Research. 2021; 55: 152–161.

[28] Liu X, Ma PX. Phase separation, pore structure, and properties of nanofibrous gelatin scaffolds. Biomaterials. 2009; 30: 4094–4103.

[29] Gupte MJ, Ma PX. Nanofibrous scaffolds for dental and craniofacial applications. Journal of Dental Research. 2012; 91: 227–234.

[30] Gandolfi MG, Siboni F, Botero T, Bossù M, Riccitiello F, Prati C. Calcium silicate and calcium hydroxide materials for pulp capping: biointeractivity, porosity, solubility and bioactivity of current formulations. Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials. 2015; 13: 43–60.

[31] Modena KCDS, Calvo AM, Sipert CR, Colombini-Ishikiriama BL, Dionísio TJ, Navarro MFL, et al. Molecular response of pulp fibroblasts after stimulation with pulp capping materials. Brazilian Dental Journal. 2020; 31: 244–251.

[32] Schröder U. Effects of calcium hydroxide-containing pulp-capping agents on pulp cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Journal of Dental Research. 1985; 64: 541–548.

[33] Canoğlu E, Güngör HC, Uysal S. Direct pulp capping of primary molars with calcium hydroxide or MTA following hemorrhage control with different medicaments: randomized clinical trial. Pediatric Dentistry. 2022; 44: 167–173.

[34] Wang MC, Yeh LY, Shih WY, Li WC, Chang KW, Lin SC. Portland cement induces human periodontal ligament cells to differentiate by upregulating miR-146a. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association. 2018; 117: 308–315.

[35] Yuan Z, Peng B, Jiang H, Bian Z, Yan P. Effect of bioaggregate on mineral-associated gene expression in osteoblast cells. Journal of Endodontics. 2010; 36: 1145–1148.

[36] Zhang S, Yang X, Fan M. BioAggregate and iRoot BP Plus optimize the proliferation and mineralization ability of human dental pulp cells. International Endodontic Journal. 2013; 46: 923–929.

[37] Jung JY, Woo SM, Lee BN, Koh JT, Nör JE, Hwang YC. Effect of Biodentine and Bioaggregate on odontoblastic differentiation via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in human dental pulp cells. International Endodontic Journal. 2015; 48: 177–184.

[38] Kim J, Song YS, Min KS, Kim SH, Koh JT, Lee BN, et al. Evaluation of reparative dentin formation of ProRoot MTA, Biodentine and BioAggregate using micro-CT and immunohistochemistry. Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics. 2016; 41: 29–36.

[39] Kayad M, Koura A, El-Nozahy A. A comparative histological study of the effect of TheraCal LC and biodentine on direct pulp capping in rabbits: an experimental study. Clinical Oral Investigations. 2023; 27: 1013–1022.

[40] Peskersoy C, Lukarcanin J, Turkun M. Efcacy of diferent calcium silicate materials as pulp-capping agents: randomized clinical trial. Journal of Dental Sciences. 2021; 16: 723–731.

[41] Alazrag MA, Abu-Seida AM, El-Batouty KM, El Ashry SH. Marginal adaptation, solubility and biocompatibility of TheraCal LC compared with MTA-angelus and biodentine as a furcation perforation repair material. BMC Oral Health. 2020; 20: 298.

[42] Kunert M, Rozpedek-Kaminska W, Galita G, Sauro S, Bourgi R, Hardan L, et al. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of bioactive dental materials. Cells. 2022; 11: 3238.

[43] Collado-González M, García-Bernal D, Oñate-Sánchez RE, Ortolani-Seltenerich PS, Álvarez-Muro T, Lozano A, et al. Cytotoxicity and bioactivity of various pulpotomy materials on stem cells from human exfoliated primary teeth. International Endodontic Journal. 2017; 50: e19–e30.

[44] Tomás-Catalá CJ, Collado-González M, García-Bernal D, Oñate-Sánchez RE, Forner L, Llena C, et al. Biocompatibility of new pulp-capping materials NeoMTA plus, MTA repair HP, and Biodentine on human dental pulp stem cells. Journal of Endodontics. 2018; 44: 126–132.

[45] Akinci L, Simsek N, Aydinbelge HA. Physical properties of MTA, BioAggregate and Biodentine in simulated conditions: a micro-CT analysis. Dental Materials Journal. 2020; 39: 601–607.

[46] Al-Sherbiny IM, Farid MH, Abu-Seida AM, Motawea IT, Bastawy HA. Chemico-physical and mechanical evaluation of three calcium silicate-based pulp capping materials. The Saudi Dental Journal. 2021; 33: 207–214.

[47] Camilleri J, Grech L, Galea K, Keir D, Fenech M, Formosa L, et al. Porosity and root dentine to material interface assessment of calcium silicate-based root-end filling materials. Clinical Oral Investigations. 2014; 18: 1437–1446.

[48] Cengiz E, Yilmaz HG. Efficacy of erbium, chromium-doped: yttrium, scandium, gallium, and garnet laser irradiation combined with resin-based tricalcium silicate and calcium hydroxide on direct pulp capping: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Endodontics. 2016; 42: 351–355.

[49] Jalan AL, Warhadpande MM, Dakshindas DM. A comparison of human dental pulp response to calcium hydroxide and Biodentine as direct pulp-capping agents. Journal of Conservative Dentistry. 2017; 20: 129–133.

[50] Majeed A, AlShwaimi E. Push-out bond strength and surface microhardness of calcium silicate-based biomaterials: an in vitro study. Medical Principles and Practice. 2017; 26: 139–145.

[51] Kucukyildiz EN, Dayi B, Altin S, Yigit O. In vitro comparison of physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of graphene nanoplatelet added Angelus mineral trioxide aggregate to pure Angelus mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide. Microscopy Research and Technique. 2021; 84: 929–942.

[52] Gupta R, Kewalramani R. In-vitro evaluation of microleakage of bioceramic root-end filling materials: a spectrophotometric study. Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research. 2021; 11: 330–333.

[53] Zafar K, Jamal S, Ghafoor R. Bio-active cements-Mineral Trioxide Aggregate based calcium silicate materials: a narrative review. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association. 2020; 70: 497–504.

[54] Alipour M, Faraji Gavgani L, Ghasemi N. Push-out bond strength of the calcium silicate-based endodontic cements in the presence of blood: a systematic review and meta-analysis of in vitro studies. Clinical and Experimental Dental Research. 2022; 8: 571–582.

[55] Raina A, Sawhny A, Paul S, Nandamuri S. Comparative evaluation of the bond strength of self-adhering and bulk-fill flowable composites to MTA Plus, Dycal, Biodentine, and TheraCal: an in vitro study. Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics. 2020; 45: e10.

[56] Qiu Y, Saito T. Novel bioactive adhesive monomer CMET promotes odontogenic differentiation and dentin regeneration. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22: 12728.

[57] Franzin NRS, Sostena MMDS, Santos ADD, Moura MR, Camargo ER, Hosida TY, et al. Novel pulp capping material based on sodium trimetaphosphate: synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial properties. Journal of Applied Oral Science. 2022; 30: e20210483.

[58] Whitehouse LL, Thomson NH, Do T, Feichtinger GA. Bioactive molecules for regenerative pulp capping. European Cells and Materials. 2021; 42: 415–437.

[59] Li F, Liu X, Zhao S, Wu H, Xu HH. Porous chitosan bilayer membrane containing TGF-β1 loaded microspheres for pulp capping and reparative dentin formation in a dog model. Dental Materials. 2014; 30: 172–181.

[60] Li Z, Xie K, Yang S, Yu T, Xiao Y, Zhou Y. Multifunctional Ca-Zn-Si-based micro-nano spheres with anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, and dentin regenerative properties for pulp capping application. Journal of Materials Chemistry B. 2021; 9: 8289–8299.


Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,500 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Biological Abstracts Easily discover critical journal coverage of the life sciences with Biological Abstracts, produced by the Web of Science Group, with topics ranging from botany to microbiology to pharmacology. Including BIOSIS indexing and MeSH terms, specialized indexing in Biological Abstracts helps you to discover more accurate, context-sensitive results.

Google Scholar Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines.

JournalSeek Genamics JournalSeek is the largest completely categorized database of freely available journal information available on the internet. The database presently contains 39226 titles. Journal information includes the description (aims and scope), journal abbreviation, journal homepage link, subject category and ISSN.

Current Contents - Clinical Medicine Current Contents - Clinical Medicine provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in clinical medicine.

BIOSIS Previews BIOSIS Previews is an English-language, bibliographic database service, with abstracts and citation indexing. It is part of Clarivate Analytics Web of Science suite. BIOSIS Previews indexes data from 1926 to the present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Scopus: CiteScore 2.0 (2022) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Submission Turnaround Time

Conferences

Top